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Article

Quantifying the Northward Spread of Ticks (Ixodida) as Climate Warms in Northern Russia

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Yakut Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture, Yakutsk 677001, Russia
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Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
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Department of Geography, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India
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Center for Climate Change Adaptation, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan
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Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Clare Heaviside
Atmosphere 2021, 12(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020233
Received: 3 December 2020 / Revised: 1 February 2021 / Accepted: 4 February 2021 / Published: 8 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
Climate change is affecting human health worldwide. In particular, changes to local and global climate parameters influence vector and water-borne diseases like malaria, dengue fever, and tick-borne encephalitis. The Republic of Sakha in northern Russia is no exception. Long-term trends of increasing annual temperatures and thawing permafrost have corresponded with the northward range expansion of tick-species in the Republic. Indigenous communities living in these remote areas may be severely affected by human and livestock diseases introduced by disease vectors like ticks. To better understand the risk of vector-borne diseases in Sakha, we aimed to describe the increase and spatial spread of tick-bite cases in the Republic. Between 2000 and 2018, the frequency of tick bite cases increased 40-fold. At the start of the period, only isolated cases were reported in southern districts, but by 2018, tick bites had been reported in 21 districts in the Republic. This trend coincides with a noticeable increase in the average annual temperature in the region since the 2000s by an average of 1 °C. Maps illustrate the northward spread of tick-bite cases. A negative binomial regression model was used to correlate the increase in cases with a number of climate parameters. Tick bite case frequency per district was significantly explained by average annual temperature, average temperature in the coldest month of the year, the observation year, as well as Selyaninov’s hydrothermal coefficient. These findings contribute to the growing literature that describe the relationship between tick abundance and spread in Northern Latitudes and changes in temperatures and moisture. Future studies might use these and similar results to map and identify areas at risk of infestation by ticks, as climates continue to change in Sakha. View Full-Text
Keywords: Republic of Sakha; vector-borne disease; Arctic North; tick bite; human health; climate change Republic of Sakha; vector-borne disease; Arctic North; tick bite; human health; climate change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vladimirov, L.N.; Machakhtyrov, G.N.; Machakhtyrova, V.A.; Louw, A.S.; Sahu, N.; Yunus, A.P.; Avtar, R. Quantifying the Northward Spread of Ticks (Ixodida) as Climate Warms in Northern Russia. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 233. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020233

AMA Style

Vladimirov LN, Machakhtyrov GN, Machakhtyrova VA, Louw AS, Sahu N, Yunus AP, Avtar R. Quantifying the Northward Spread of Ticks (Ixodida) as Climate Warms in Northern Russia. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(2):233. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020233

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vladimirov, Leonid N., Grigory N. Machakhtyrov, Varvara A. Machakhtyrova, Albertus S. Louw, Netrananda Sahu, Ali P. Yunus, and Ram Avtar. 2021. "Quantifying the Northward Spread of Ticks (Ixodida) as Climate Warms in Northern Russia" Atmosphere 12, no. 2: 233. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020233

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