Next Article in Journal
Volcanic Ash Resuspension in Patagonia: Numerical Simulations and Observations
Next Article in Special Issue
GIS-Based Land Suitability and Crop Vulnerability Assessment under Climate Change in Chtouka Ait Baha, Morocco
Previous Article in Journal
Precipitation Microphysical Characteristics of Typhoon Mangkhut in Southern China Using 2D Video Disdrometers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Rainfall Trends and Extremes in Saudi Arabia in Recent Decades
 
 
Article

Long-Term Analysis of Atmospheric Energetics Components over the Mediterranean, Middle East and North Africa

Climate and Atmosphere Research Center (CARE-C), The Cyprus Institute, Aglantzia 2121, Cyprus
Atmosphere 2020, 11(9), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090976
Received: 7 July 2020 / Revised: 7 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 11 September 2020
In this research, one aspect of the climate that is not commonly referred to, namely, the long-term changes in the components of the atmospheric energy, is investigated. In this respect, the changes in four energy forms are considered, namely, Kinetic Energy (KE), Thermal Energy (TE), Internal Energy (IE), Potential Energy (PE) and Latent Energy (LE); the Energy Conversion (EC) between Kinetic Energy and Potential plus Internal Energy (PIE) is also considered. The area considered in this long-term energetics analysis covers the entire Mediterranean basin, the Middle East and a large part of North Africa. This broad geographical area has been identified by many researchers as a hot spot of climate change. Analyses of climatic data have indeed shown that this region has been experiencing marked changes regarding several climatic variables. The present energetics analysis makes use of the ERA-Interim database for the period from 1979 to 2018. In this 40-year period, the long-term changes in the above energetics components are studied. The monthly means of daily means for all the above energy forms and Energy Conversion comprise the basis for the present research. The results are presented in the form of monthly means, annual means and spatial distributions of the energetics components. They show the dominant role of the subtropical jet-stream in the KE regime. During the study period, the tendency is for KE to decrease with time, with this decrease found to be more coherent in the last decade. The tendency for TE is to increase with time, with this increase being more pronounced in the most recent years, with the maximum in the annual mean in KE noted in 2015. The sum of Potential and Internal energies (PIE) and the sum of Potential, Internal and Latent energies (PILE) follow closely the patterns established for TE. In particular, the strong seasonal influence on the monthly means is evident with minima of PIE and PILE noted in winters, whereas, maxima are registered during summers. In addition, both PIE and PILE exhibit a tendency to increase with time in the 40-year period, with this increase being more firmly noted in the more recent years. Although local conversion from KE into PIE is notable, the area averaging of EC shows that the overall conversion is in the direction of increasing the PIE content of the area at the expense of the KE content. EC behaves rather erratically during the study period, with values ranging from 0.5 to 3.7 × 102 W m−2. Averaged over the study area, the Energy Conversion term operates in the direction of converting KE into PIE; it also lacks a seasonal behavior. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmospheric energy; Mediterranean; Middle East; North Africa atmospheric energy; Mediterranean; Middle East; North Africa
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Michaelides, S. Long-Term Analysis of Atmospheric Energetics Components over the Mediterranean, Middle East and North Africa. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 976. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090976

AMA Style

Michaelides S. Long-Term Analysis of Atmospheric Energetics Components over the Mediterranean, Middle East and North Africa. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(9):976. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090976

Chicago/Turabian Style

Michaelides, Silas. 2020. "Long-Term Analysis of Atmospheric Energetics Components over the Mediterranean, Middle East and North Africa" Atmosphere 11, no. 9: 976. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090976

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop