Next Article in Journal
Apportioning Smoke Impacts of 2018 Wildfires on Eastern Sierra Nevada Sites
Next Article in Special Issue
Heat and Ozone Pollution Waves in Central and South Europe—Characteristics, Weather Types, and Association with Mortality
Previous Article in Journal
Vortex Initialization in the NCEP Operational Hurricane Models
 
 
Article

Impact of Urbanization on the Predictions of Urban Meteorology and Air Pollutants over Four Major North American Cities

1
Air Quality Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, ON M3H 5T4, Canada
2
Meteorological Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Dorval, QC H9P 1J3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(9), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090969
Received: 14 July 2020 / Revised: 3 September 2020 / Accepted: 3 September 2020 / Published: 10 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Climate Events and Air Quality)
The sensitivities of meteorological and chemical predictions to urban effects over four major North American cities are investigated using the high-resolution (2.5-km) Environment and Climate Change Canada’s air quality model with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) scheme. Comparisons between the model simulation results with and without the TEB effect show that urbanization has great impacts on surface heat fluxes, vertical diffusivity, air temperature, humidity, atmospheric boundary layer height, land-lake circulation, air pollutants concentrations and Air Quality Health Index. The impacts have strong diurnal variabilities, and are very different in summer and winter. While the diurnal variations of the impacts share some similarities over each city, the magnitudes can be very different. The underlying mechanisms of the impacts are investigated. The TEB impacts on the predictions of meteorological and air pollutants over Toronto are evaluated against ground-based observations. The results show that the TEB scheme leads to a great improvement in biases and root-mean-square deviations in temperature and humidity predictions in downtown, uptown and suburban areas in the early morning and nighttime. The scheme also leads to a big improvement of predictions of NOx, PM2.5 and ground-level ozone in the downtown, uptown and industrial areas in the early morning and nighttime. View Full-Text
Keywords: urbanization impacts on meteorological and chemical fields; high-resolution air quality forecast model; town energy balance model; surface heat flux; urban heat island effect urbanization impacts on meteorological and chemical fields; high-resolution air quality forecast model; town energy balance model; surface heat flux; urban heat island effect
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ren, S.; Stroud, C.A.; Belair, S.; Leroyer, S.; Munoz-Alpizar, R.; Moran, M.D.; Zhang, J.; Akingunola, A.; Makar, P.A. Impact of Urbanization on the Predictions of Urban Meteorology and Air Pollutants over Four Major North American Cities. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 969. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090969

AMA Style

Ren S, Stroud CA, Belair S, Leroyer S, Munoz-Alpizar R, Moran MD, Zhang J, Akingunola A, Makar PA. Impact of Urbanization on the Predictions of Urban Meteorology and Air Pollutants over Four Major North American Cities. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(9):969. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090969

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ren, Shuzhan, Craig A. Stroud, Stephane Belair, Sylvie Leroyer, Rodrigo Munoz-Alpizar, Michael D. Moran, Junhua Zhang, Ayodeji Akingunola, and Paul A. Makar. 2020. "Impact of Urbanization on the Predictions of Urban Meteorology and Air Pollutants over Four Major North American Cities" Atmosphere 11, no. 9: 969. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090969

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop