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Chemical Characteristics of Major Inorganic Ions in PM2.5 Based on Year-Long Observations in Guiyang, Southwest China—Implications for Formation Pathways and the Influences of Regional Transport

1
School of Earth System Science, Institute of Surface-Earth System Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
2
Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of the Causes and Control of Atmospheric Pollution, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(8), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080847
Received: 6 July 2020 / Revised: 5 August 2020 / Accepted: 6 August 2020 / Published: 10 August 2020
Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) are the dominant components of water-soluble ions (WSIs) in PM2.5, which are of great significance for understanding the sources and transformation mechanisms of PM2.5. In this study, daily PM2.5 samples were collected from September 2017 to August 2018 within the Guiyang urban area and the concentrations of the major WSIs in the PM2.5 samples were characterized. The results showed that the average concentration of SNA (SO42−, NO3, NH4+) was 15.01 ± 9.35 μg m−3, accounting for 81.05% (48.71–93.76%) of the total WSIs and 45.33% (14.25–82.43%) of the PM2.5 and their possible chemical composition in PM2.5 was (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3. The highest SOR (sulfur oxidation ratio) was found in summer, which was mainly due to the higher temperature and O3 concentrations, while the lowest NOR (nitrogen oxidation ratio) found in summer may ascribe to the volatilization of nitrates being accelerated at higher temperature. Furthermore, the nitrate formation was more obvious in NH4+-rich environments so reducing NH3 emissions could effectively control the formation of nitrate. The results of the trajectory cluster analysis suggested that air pollutants can be easily enriched over short air mass trajectories from local emission sources, affecting the chemical composition of PM2.5. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; Guiyang; SNA; transformation mechanism; clustering analysis PM2.5; Guiyang; SNA; transformation mechanism; clustering analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xiao, H.; Xiao, H.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Zheng, N.-J.; Li, Q.-k.; Li, X.-D. Chemical Characteristics of Major Inorganic Ions in PM2.5 Based on Year-Long Observations in Guiyang, Southwest China—Implications for Formation Pathways and the Influences of Regional Transport. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 847. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080847

AMA Style

Xiao H, Xiao H-Y, Zhang Z-Y, Zheng N-J, Li Q-k, Li X-D. Chemical Characteristics of Major Inorganic Ions in PM2.5 Based on Year-Long Observations in Guiyang, Southwest China—Implications for Formation Pathways and the Influences of Regional Transport. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(8):847. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080847

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xiao, Hao, Hua-Yun Xiao, Zhong-Yi Zhang, Neng-Jian Zheng, Qin-kai Li, and Xiao-Dong Li. 2020. "Chemical Characteristics of Major Inorganic Ions in PM2.5 Based on Year-Long Observations in Guiyang, Southwest China—Implications for Formation Pathways and the Influences of Regional Transport" Atmosphere 11, no. 8: 847. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080847

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