Next Article in Journal
Assessment of Air Pollution with Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and Polychlorinated Dibenzofuranes (PCDFs) in Lithuania
Next Article in Special Issue
Disdrometer, Polarimetric Radar, and Condensation Nuclei Observations of Supercell and Multicell Storms on 11 June 2018 in Eastern Nebraska
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of WRF-Chem Predictions for Dust Deposition in Southwestern Iran
Previous Article in Special Issue
Characteristics of DSD Bulk Parameters: Implication for Radar Rain Retrieval
Article

Dependence of Mass–Dimensional Relationships on Median Mass Diameter

1
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
2
Cooperative Institute of Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, Norman, OK 73072, USA
3
School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73072, USA
4
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
5
Department Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(7), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070756
Received: 8 June 2020 / Revised: 9 July 2020 / Accepted: 14 July 2020 / Published: 17 July 2020
Retrievals of ice cloud properties require accurate estimates of ice particle mass. Empirical mass–dimensional (mD) relationships in the form m = a D b are widely used and usually universally applied across the complete range of particle sizes. For the first time, the dependence of a and b coefficients in m–D relationships on median mass diameter (Dmm) is studied. Using combined cloud microphysical data collected during the Olympic Mountains Experiment and coincident observations from Airborne Precipitation Radar Third Generation, Dmm-dependent (a, b) coefficients are derived and represented as surfaces of equally plausible solutions determined by some tolerance in the chi-squared difference χ 2 that minimizes the difference between observed and retrieved radar reflectivity. Robust dependences of a and b on Dmm are shown with both parameters significantly decreasing with Dmm, leading to smaller effective densities for larger Dmm ranges. A universally applied constant m–D relationship overestimates the mass of large aggregates when Dmm is between 3–6 mm and temperatures are between −15–0 °C. Multiple m–D relations should be applied for different Dmm ranges in retrievals and simulations to account for the variability of particle sizes that are responsible for the mass and thus for the variability of particle shapes and densities. View Full-Text
Keywords: mass–dimensional relationship; median mass diameter; radar reflectivity; equally plausible surface mass–dimensional relationship; median mass diameter; radar reflectivity; equally plausible surface
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ding, S.; McFarquhar, G.M.; Nesbitt, S.W.; Chase, R.J.; Poellot, M.R.; Wang, H. Dependence of Mass–Dimensional Relationships on Median Mass Diameter. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 756. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070756

AMA Style

Ding S, McFarquhar GM, Nesbitt SW, Chase RJ, Poellot MR, Wang H. Dependence of Mass–Dimensional Relationships on Median Mass Diameter. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(7):756. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070756

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ding, Saisai, Greg M. McFarquhar, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Randy J. Chase, Michael R. Poellot, and Hongqing Wang. 2020. "Dependence of Mass–Dimensional Relationships on Median Mass Diameter" Atmosphere 11, no. 7: 756. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070756

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop