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Characteristics of DSD Bulk Parameters: Implication for Radar Rain Retrieval

Dependence of Mass–Dimensional Relationships on Median Mass Diameter

Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Cooperative Institute of Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, Norman, OK 73072, USA
School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73072, USA
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Department Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(7), 756;
Received: 8 June 2020 / Revised: 9 July 2020 / Accepted: 14 July 2020 / Published: 17 July 2020
Retrievals of ice cloud properties require accurate estimates of ice particle mass. Empirical mass–dimensional (mD) relationships in the form m = a D b are widely used and usually universally applied across the complete range of particle sizes. For the first time, the dependence of a and b coefficients in m–D relationships on median mass diameter (Dmm) is studied. Using combined cloud microphysical data collected during the Olympic Mountains Experiment and coincident observations from Airborne Precipitation Radar Third Generation, Dmm-dependent (a, b) coefficients are derived and represented as surfaces of equally plausible solutions determined by some tolerance in the chi-squared difference χ 2 that minimizes the difference between observed and retrieved radar reflectivity. Robust dependences of a and b on Dmm are shown with both parameters significantly decreasing with Dmm, leading to smaller effective densities for larger Dmm ranges. A universally applied constant m–D relationship overestimates the mass of large aggregates when Dmm is between 3–6 mm and temperatures are between −15–0 °C. Multiple m–D relations should be applied for different Dmm ranges in retrievals and simulations to account for the variability of particle sizes that are responsible for the mass and thus for the variability of particle shapes and densities. View Full-Text
Keywords: mass–dimensional relationship; median mass diameter; radar reflectivity; equally plausible surface mass–dimensional relationship; median mass diameter; radar reflectivity; equally plausible surface
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ding, S.; McFarquhar, G.M.; Nesbitt, S.W.; Chase, R.J.; Poellot, M.R.; Wang, H. Dependence of Mass–Dimensional Relationships on Median Mass Diameter. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 756.

AMA Style

Ding S, McFarquhar GM, Nesbitt SW, Chase RJ, Poellot MR, Wang H. Dependence of Mass–Dimensional Relationships on Median Mass Diameter. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(7):756.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ding, Saisai, Greg M. McFarquhar, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Randy J. Chase, Michael R. Poellot, and Hongqing Wang. 2020. "Dependence of Mass–Dimensional Relationships on Median Mass Diameter" Atmosphere 11, no. 7: 756.

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