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Open AccessArticle

Pollution Characteristics of Atmospheric Carbonyls in Urban Linfen in Winter

College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yangtze University, JingZhou 434023, China
Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
Linfen municipal ecological and environmental monitoring center of Shanxi Province, Linfen 041000, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(7), 685;
Received: 9 May 2020 / Revised: 3 June 2020 / Accepted: 11 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
Atmospheric carbonyls (aldehyde and ketone compounds) can be precursors for ozone and PM2.5, and they play an essential role in atmospheric chemistry. Linfen is a basin between mountains on the east and west, and there are many coking plants on the north and south sides of its urban area. The special topography and unfortunate industrial layout have frequently contributed to serious air pollution in Linfen. In order to investigate the pollution characteristics of atmospheric carbonyls in winter in urban Linfen, the carbonyl compounds were collected from the Municipal Committee site (MC) and the Yaowangtai site (YWT) from 16 to 25 January 2019, and their concentrations were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). The results show that formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone were the most abundant compounds, accounting for more than 70% of the total mass concentration of carbonyls in urban Linfen. Levels of these three carbonyls increased during the morning and evening traffic rush hours. The mass concentration of formaldehyde at both sites reached peak values at around noon (10:00–14:00). In addition, the mass concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone were positively correlated with CO mass concentrations, whereas only formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were positively correlated with temperature. Therefore, atmospheric formaldehyde in urban Linfen’s winter mainly came from vehicle exhaust emissions and the secondary generation of photochemical reactions. Most of the acetaldehyde came from vehicle exhaust emissions, and photochemical reactions also partially contributed to it. For acetone, vehicle exhaust emissions were the main source. In addition, coking industry emissions from Northern Linfen′s Hongtong County may also have contributed to the atmospheric carbonyls in the urban area of Linfen. For the first time, this study found that formaldehyde showed different behavior to acetaldehyde and acetone; that is, the nighttime decrease in formaldehyde mass concentration was greater than that of acetaldehyde and acetone. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmospheric carbonyls; diurnal variation; sources; backward trajectory; winter; vehicle emission; photochemical reaction atmospheric carbonyls; diurnal variation; sources; backward trajectory; winter; vehicle emission; photochemical reaction
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Li, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Xue, Z.; Duan, L.; Kou, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, X. Pollution Characteristics of Atmospheric Carbonyls in Urban Linfen in Winter. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 685.

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