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Frequency-Agile FFT Spectrometer for Microwave Remote Sensing Applications
Open AccessArticle

The Problems of Passive Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface in the Range of 1.2–1.6 GHz

1
Semenov Federal Research Center for Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow, Russia
2
National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, 123182 Moscow, Russia
3
Center for Chemical Physics of Atmosphere, 119991 Moscow, Russia
4
Department of Earth Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
5
Geophysical Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119296 Moscow, Russia
6
Institute of Space Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan
7
Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
8
Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 105005 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(6), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060650
Received: 14 April 2020 / Revised: 22 May 2020 / Accepted: 16 June 2020 / Published: 18 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Applications in Microwave Radiometry)
The main problems of remote sensing of the Earth’s surface within the frequency range 1.2–1.6 GHz are discussed. They are related to the resonant quantum properties of the radio wave propagation medium in the lower ionosphere. It is shown that, for the passive remote sensing, the main source is incoherent microwave radiation of the D and E ionospheric layers in the decimeter range. For the first time, a theoretically grounded principally new scheme of measurements is suggested. The scheme assumes that the radiation source exists below the satellite orbit and accounts for the fact that two types of radiation (direct and reflected) reach the satellite sensor. The separation of the respective fluxes is a serious problem that should be solved for the correct interpretation of the measurements. The question is raised regarding the correct calibration of measuring equipment, depending on the current state of the ionosphere. View Full-Text
Keywords: remote sensing of Earth’s surface; D and E ionospheric layers; charged aerosols; equipment calibration remote sensing of Earth’s surface; D and E ionospheric layers; charged aerosols; equipment calibration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Golubkov, G.V.; Manzhelii, M.I.; Berlin, A.A.; Eppelbaum, L.V.; Lushnikov, A.A.; Morozov, I.I.; Dmitriev, A.V.; Adamson, S.O.; Dyakov, Y.A.; Morozov, A.N.; Golubkov, M.G. The Problems of Passive Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface in the Range of 1.2–1.6 GHz. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 650. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060650

AMA Style

Golubkov GV, Manzhelii MI, Berlin AA, Eppelbaum LV, Lushnikov AA, Morozov II, Dmitriev AV, Adamson SO, Dyakov YA, Morozov AN, Golubkov MG. The Problems of Passive Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface in the Range of 1.2–1.6 GHz. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(6):650. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060650

Chicago/Turabian Style

Golubkov, Gennady V.; Manzhelii, Mikhail I.; Berlin, Alexandr A.; Eppelbaum, Lev V.; Lushnikov, Alexey A.; Morozov, Igor I.; Dmitriev, Alexey V.; Adamson, Sergey O.; Dyakov, Yuri A.; Morozov, Andrey N.; Golubkov, Maxim G. 2020. "The Problems of Passive Remote Sensing of the Earth’s Surface in the Range of 1.2–1.6 GHz" Atmosphere 11, no. 6: 650. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060650

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