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Article

Effects of Model Coupling on Typhoon Kalmaegi (2014) Simulation in the South China Sea

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School of Marine Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
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College of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
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Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai 519082, China
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Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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School of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China
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Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Climate Change and Natural Disaster Studies, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, China
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State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou 310012, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(4), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11040432
Received: 2 March 2020 / Revised: 11 April 2020 / Accepted: 22 April 2020 / Published: 24 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
Typhoon Kalmaegi (2014) in the South China Sea (SCS) is simulated using a fully coupled atmosphere–ocean–wave model (COAWST). A set of sensitivity experiments are conducted to investigate the effects of different model coupling combinations on the typhoon simulation. Model results are validated by employing in-situ data at four locations in the SCS, and best-track and satellite data. Correlation and root-mean-square difference are used to assess the simulation quality. A skill score system is defined from these two statistical criteria to evaluate the performance of model experiments relative to a baseline. Atmosphere–ocean feedback is crucial for accurate simulations. Our baseline experiment successfully reconstructs the atmospheric and oceanic conditions during Typhoon Kalmaegi. Typhoon-induced sea surface cooling that weakens the system due to less heat and moisture availability is captured best in a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)-coupled run. The Simulated Wave Nearshore (SWAN)-coupled run has demonstrated the ability to estimate sea surface roughness better. Intense winds lead to a larger surface roughness where more heat and momentum are exchanged, while the rougher surface causes more friction, slowing down surface winds. From our experiments, we show that these intricate interactions require a fully coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)–ROMS–SWAN model to best reproduce the environment during a typhoon. View Full-Text
Keywords: air–sea interaction; typhoon; coupled simulation; COAWST; WRF; ROMS; SWAN air–sea interaction; typhoon; coupled simulation; COAWST; WRF; ROMS; SWAN
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lim Kam Sian, K.T.C.; Dong, C.; Liu, H.; Wu, R.; Zhang, H. Effects of Model Coupling on Typhoon Kalmaegi (2014) Simulation in the South China Sea. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 432. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11040432

AMA Style

Lim Kam Sian KTC, Dong C, Liu H, Wu R, Zhang H. Effects of Model Coupling on Typhoon Kalmaegi (2014) Simulation in the South China Sea. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(4):432. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11040432

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lim Kam Sian, Kenny T.C., Changming Dong, Hailong Liu, Renhao Wu, and Han Zhang. 2020. "Effects of Model Coupling on Typhoon Kalmaegi (2014) Simulation in the South China Sea" Atmosphere 11, no. 4: 432. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11040432

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