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Open AccessArticle

Improvement of Fog Simulation by the Nudging of Meteorological Tower Data in the WRF and PAFOG Coupled Model

Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(3), 311;
Received: 28 January 2020 / Revised: 14 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 23 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observation, Simulation and Predictability of Fog )
Improvement of fog simulation accuracy was investigated for the fogs that occurred on the south coast of the Korean Peninsula using the WRF (3D) and PAFOG (1D) coupled model. In total, 22 fog cases were simulated and accuracy of the fog simulation was examined based on Critical Success Index, Hit Rate and False Alarm Rate. The performance of the coupled WRF-PAFOG model was better than that of the single WRF model as expected. However, much more significant improvement appeared only when the data from a 300 m meteorological tower was not only used for the initial conditions but also nudged during the simulation. Moreover, a proper prescription of soil moisture was found to be important for accurate fog simulation especially for the fog cases with prior precipitation since efficient moisture supply from the precipitation-soaked soil might have been critical for fog formation. It was also demonstrated that with such optimal coupled model setting, a coastal radiation fog event with prior precipitation could be very realistically simulated: the fog onset and dissipation times matched so well with observation. In detail, radiative cooling at the surface was critical to form a surface inversion layer as the night fell. Then the vapor flux from the precipitation-soaked surface was confined within the inversion layer to form fog. It is suggested that a proper prescription of soil moisture in the model based on observations, if readily available, could be a cost-effective method for improving operational fog forecasting, considering the fact that tall meteorological towers are a rarity in the world. View Full-Text
Keywords: BSWO; coastal fog; PAFOG; WRF; coupled model BSWO; coastal fog; PAFOG; WRF; coupled model
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Kim, W.; Yum, S.S.; Hong, J.; Song, J.I. Improvement of Fog Simulation by the Nudging of Meteorological Tower Data in the WRF and PAFOG Coupled Model. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 311.

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