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Open AccessArticle

The Comprehensive Study of Low Thermospheric Sodium Layers during the 24th Solar Cycle

1
College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
3
Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control Systems, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China
4
Institute for Environmental and Climate Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511443, China
5
Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China
6
Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(3), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11030284
Received: 23 January 2020 / Revised: 4 March 2020 / Accepted: 9 March 2020 / Published: 14 March 2020
The low thermospheric sodium layer (LTSL) is the separate sodium atom layer above 105 km. Based on 11,607 h of lidar observations from Yanqing (40.5° N, 116.0° E) from 2010 to 2016, we found 38 LTSLs wherein the peak densities were more than five percent above those of the main sodium layers. This work presents the peak altitudes, peak local times and peak densities of the LTSLs as well as the long-term characteristics of the seasonal and inter-annual variations of LTSLs. We analyzed the correlation between the LTSL and sporadic E layer (Es). The seasonal variation trends of the occurrences of LTSL and Es are similar, and the results showed that 95% of the LTSLs were accompanied by Es. We also found that 69% of the LTSL cases exhibited apparent downward phase progressions, while the descending rates of the LTSLs are consistent with the phase speeds of the tide. View Full-Text
Keywords: low thermospheric sodium layer; sporadic E layer; tide low thermospheric sodium layer; sporadic E layer; tide
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Xun, Y.; Yang, G.; Wang, J.; Du, L.; Wang, Z.; Jiao, J.; Cheng, X.; Li, F.; Zou, X. The Comprehensive Study of Low Thermospheric Sodium Layers during the 24th Solar Cycle. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 284.

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