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Impacts of the Tropical Pacific–Indian Ocean Associated Mode on Madden–Julian Oscillation over the Maritime Continent in Boreal Winter

1
College of Meteorology and Oceanography, National University of Defense Technology, Nanjing 211101, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
3
Troop 32021 of People’s Liberation Army (PLA), Beijing 100094, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(10), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11101049
Received: 26 August 2020 / Revised: 22 September 2020 / Accepted: 25 September 2020 / Published: 30 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
Based on the observation and reanalysis data, the relationship between the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the Maritime Continent (MC) and the tropical Pacific–Indian Ocean associated mode was analyzed. The results showed that the MJO over the MC region (95°–150° E, 10° S–10° N) (referred to as the MC–MJO) possesses prominent interannual and interdecadal variations and seasonally “phase-locked” features. MC–MJO is strongest in the boreal winter and weakest in the boreal summer. Winter MC–MJO kinetic energy variation has significant relationships with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in winter and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in autumn, but it correlates better with the tropical Pacific–Indian Ocean associated mode (PIOAM). The correlation coefficient between the winter MC–MJO kinetic energy index and the autumn PIOAM index is as high as −0.5. This means that when the positive (negative) autumn PIOAM anomaly strengthens, the MJO kinetic energy over the winter MC region weakens (strengthens). However, the correlation between the MC–MJO convection and PIOAM in winter is significantly weaker. The propagation of MJO over the Maritime Continent differs significantly in the contrast phases of PIOAM. During the positive phase of the PIOAM, the eastward propagation of the winter MJO kinetic energy always fails to move across the MC region and cannot enter the western Pacific. However, during the negative phase of the PIOAM, the anomalies of MJO kinetic energy over the MC is not significantly weakened, and MJO can propagate farther eastward and enter the western Pacific. It should be noted that MJO convection is more likely to extend to the western Pacific in the positive phases of PIOAM than in the negative phases. This is significant different with the propagation of the MJO kinetic energy. View Full-Text
Keywords: the tropical Pacific–Indian Ocean associated mode (PIOAM); Madden–Julian Oscillations (MJO); Maritime Continent (MC); MJO kinetic energy; MJO convection the tropical Pacific–Indian Ocean associated mode (PIOAM); Madden–Julian Oscillations (MJO); Maritime Continent (MC); MJO kinetic energy; MJO convection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Yin, M.; Chen, X.; Yang, M.; Xia, F.; Li, L.; Chen, G.; Yu, P.; Zhang, C. Impacts of the Tropical Pacific–Indian Ocean Associated Mode on Madden–Julian Oscillation over the Maritime Continent in Boreal Winter. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 1049. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11101049

AMA Style

Li X, Yin M, Chen X, Yang M, Xia F, Li L, Chen G, Yu P, Zhang C. Impacts of the Tropical Pacific–Indian Ocean Associated Mode on Madden–Julian Oscillation over the Maritime Continent in Boreal Winter. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(10):1049. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11101049

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Xin; Yin, Ming; Chen, Xiong; Yang, Minghao; Xia, Fei; Li, Lifeng; Chen, Guangchao; Yu, Peilong; Zhang, Chao. 2020. "Impacts of the Tropical Pacific–Indian Ocean Associated Mode on Madden–Julian Oscillation over the Maritime Continent in Boreal Winter" Atmosphere 11, no. 10: 1049. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11101049

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