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Article

Impact of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool on the Hadley, Walker, and Monsoon Circulations

1
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
2
Center for Climate Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Busan 46241, Korea
3
Department of Climate System, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
4
Irreversible Climate Change Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(10), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11101030
Received: 21 August 2020 / Revised: 15 September 2020 / Accepted: 22 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
The Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) is enclosed by a 28 °C isotherm and plays a vital role in controlling atmospheric circulations. However, the effects of changes in regional warm pool sea surface temperatures (SSTs) remain unexplored. We divided the IPWP into the Indian and Pacific sectors and distinguished their responses to natural variability and global warming. Furthermore, we examined the impacts of the interannual variability (IAV) in warm pool SST on the tropical Hadley, Walker, and monsoon circulations. The Hadley circulation was affected by warm pool SST warming, i.e., warmer SSTs over the warm pool strengthened the upward branch of Hadley circulation, whereas the downward branch was respectively weakened and strengthened in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Walker circulation was strengthened (weakened) in the warming (natural) mode. Consequently, the Walker circulation is weakened since the natural variability of warm pool SST plays a more dominant role rather than the warming trend of SSTs over the warm pool. Furthermore, our analysis displays that warm pool warming has little impact on the monsoon circulation. Our findings highlight the different roles of the IAV of warm pool regions in each tropical circulation as part of the warming trend and natural variability. View Full-Text
Keywords: warm pool intensity; Hadley circulation; Walker circulation; monsoon circulation warm pool intensity; Hadley circulation; Walker circulation; monsoon circulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, H.-R.; Ha, K.-J.; Moon, S.; Oh, H.; Sharma, S. Impact of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool on the Hadley, Walker, and Monsoon Circulations. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 1030. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11101030

AMA Style

Kim H-R, Ha K-J, Moon S, Oh H, Sharma S. Impact of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool on the Hadley, Walker, and Monsoon Circulations. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(10):1030. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11101030

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Hye-Ryeom, Kyung-Ja Ha, Suyeon Moon, Hyoeun Oh, and Sahil Sharma. 2020. "Impact of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool on the Hadley, Walker, and Monsoon Circulations" Atmosphere 11, no. 10: 1030. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11101030

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