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Open AccessArticle

Analysis of Raindrop Shapes and Scattering Calculations: The Outer Rain Bands of Tropical Depression Nate

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
2
Institute of Communication Networks and Satellite Communications, Graz University of Technology, Graz 8010, Austria
3
Joanneum Research, Graz 8010, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010114
Received: 23 October 2019 / Revised: 8 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 18 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagetics and Polarimetric Weather Radar)
Tropical storm Nate, which was a powerful hurricane prior to landfall along the US Gulf coast, traversed north and weakened considerably to a tropical depression as it moved near an instrumented site in Hunstville, AL. The outer rain bands lasted 18 h (03:00 to 21:00 UTC on 08 October 2017) and a 2D-video disdrometer (2DVD) captured the event which was shallow at times and indicative of pure warm rain processes. The 2DVD measurements are used for 3D reconstruction of drop shapes (including the rotationally asymmetric drops) and the drop-by-drop scattering matrix has been computed using Computer Simulation Technology integral equation solver for drop sizes >2.5 mm. From the scattering matrix elements, the polarimetric radar observables are simulated by integrating over 1 min consecutive segments of the event. These simulated values are compared with dual-polarized C-band radar data located at 15 km range from the 2DVD site to evaluate the contribution of the asymmetric drop shapes, specifically to differential reflectivity. The drop fall velocities and drop horizontal velocities in terms of magnitude and direction, all being derived from each drop image from two orthogonal cameras of the 2DVD, are also considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: raindrop shapes; asymmetric rain drops; scattering calculations; polarimetric radar; 2D-video distrometer raindrop shapes; asymmetric rain drops; scattering calculations; polarimetric radar; 2D-video distrometer
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Thurai, M.; Steger, S.; Teschl, F.; Schönhuber, M. Analysis of Raindrop Shapes and Scattering Calculations: The Outer Rain Bands of Tropical Depression Nate. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 114.

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