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Open AccessArticle

Brake Wear Particle Emissions of a Passenger Car Measured on a Chassis Dynamometer

1
Ford-Werke GmbH, Süsterfeldstr, 200, 52072 Aachen, Germany
2
European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(9), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10090556
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 10 September 2019 / Accepted: 15 September 2019 / Published: 17 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
Brake wear emissions with a special focus on particle number (PN) concentrations were investigated during a chassis dynamometer measurement campaign. A recently developed, well-characterized, measurement approach was applied to measure brake particles in a semi-closed vehicle setup. Implementation of multiple particle measurement devices allowed for simultaneous measurement of volatile and solid particles. Estimated PN emission factors for volatile and solid particles differed by up to three orders of magnitude with an estimated average solid particle emission factor of 3∙109 # km−1 brake−1 over a representative on-road brake cycle. Unrealistic high brake temperatures may occur and need to be ruled out by comparison with on-road temperature measurements. PN emissions are strongly temperature dependent and this may lead to its overestimation. A high variability for PN emissions was found when volatile particles were not removed. Volatiles were observed under high temperature conditions only which are not representative of normal driving conditions. The coefficient of variation for PN emissions was 1.3 without catalytic stripper and 0.11 with catalytic stripper. Investigation of non-braking sections confirmed that particles may be generated at the brake even if no brakes are applied. These “off-brake-event” emissions contribute up to about 30% to the total brake PM10 emission. View Full-Text
Keywords: brake wear; chassis dynamometer; PN emission factor; non-exhaust emission; volatile particles brake wear; chassis dynamometer; PN emission factor; non-exhaust emission; volatile particles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mathissen, M.; Grigoratos, T.; Lahde, T.; Vogt, R. Brake Wear Particle Emissions of a Passenger Car Measured on a Chassis Dynamometer. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 556.

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