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Observed Multi-Timescale Differences between Summertime Near-Surface Equivalent Temperature and Temperature for China and Their Linkage with Global Sea Surface Temperatures

1
Heilongjiang Meteorological Service, Heilongjiang Weather Modification Office, Harbin 150030, China
2
Shanghai Meteorological Service, Shanghai Center for Meteorological Disaster Prevention Technology, Shanghai 200030, China
3
Shanghai Meteorological Service, Shanghai Ecological Forecasting and Remote Sensing Center, Shanghai 200030, China
4
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences & Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
5
Department of Natural Resources of Heilongjiang Province, Heilongjiang Land Use Monitoring and Comprehensive Management Center, Harbin 150030, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080447
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 3 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Events and Extreme Weather)
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Abstract

Based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method, this study explores the differences and similarities in multiple time-scale characteristics of summer air temperature (T) and equivalent temperature (Te) over China during 1961–2017, using daily meteorological observations collected at 412 stations in China. Their relationships to global sea surface temperature variations is also discussed. Results show that both T and Te can be decomposed into five components, which includes multiple timescales, from interannual to long-term trends. The spatial patterns of each timescale’s leading mode show that the variations of Te are generally larger than that of T. Meanwhile, both T and Te are dominated by their inter-annual, multi-decadal variations and the non-linear trend. High correlations of T and Te can also be found in these major scales. The related sea surface temperature variations in these major scales also show consistent patterns, which correspond to El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the global warming trend in the sea, respectively. In other scales, both spatial patterns of T and Te and the corresponding correlation patterns with sea surface temperature are distinguishable. The current results explore the compound changes of surface temperature-humidity during the past five decades from a new perspective, which provides some insights for a better understanding of the possible causes of climate change over China. View Full-Text
Keywords: EEMD; China; summer; temperature and equivalent temperature; sea surface temperature EEMD; China; summer; temperature and equivalent temperature; sea surface temperature
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Li, J.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Chen, L.; Jin, L. Observed Multi-Timescale Differences between Summertime Near-Surface Equivalent Temperature and Temperature for China and Their Linkage with Global Sea Surface Temperatures. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 447.

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