Next Article in Journal
Analysis of the Air Quality and the Effect of Governance Policies in China’s Pearl River Delta, 2015–2018
Previous Article in Journal
The Effects of Spring and Winter Blocking on PM10 Concentration in Korea
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ammonia Emissions Measured Using Two Different GasFinder Open-Path Lasers
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Characterization of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Swine Manure Biogas Digestate Storage

Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Key Laboratory of Energy Conservation and Waste Utilization in Agriculture e, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, China
The University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-4506, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 411;
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 13 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Livestock Odor and Air Quality)
PDF [1089 KB, uploaded 18 July 2019]
  |     |  


Livestock manure is one of the major sources of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; however, characteristics of VOCs emitted from biogas digestate (BD) storage, which is a common manure practice, remain unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize VOC emissions during BD storage through the dynamic emission vessel method, to identify the VOC emissions that have potential odor and/or toxic effects. The results revealed the detection of 49 VOCs with seven classes, whose total concentration varied from 171.35 to 523.71 μg m−3. The key classes of the 49 VOCs included Oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), olefins and halogenated hydrocarbons. The top four compositions, accounting for 74.38% of total VOCs (TVOCs), included ethanol, propylene, acetone and 2-butanone. The top four odorous VOCs, accounting for only 5.15% of the TVOCs, were toluene, carbon disulfide, ethyl acetate and methyl sulfide, with the concentration ranging from 13.25 to 18.06 μg m−3. Finally, 11 main hazardous air pollutant VOCs, accounting for 32.77% of the TVOCs, were propylene, 2-butanone, toluene, methyl methacrylate, etc., with the concentration ranging from 81.05 to 116.96 μg m−3. Results could contribute to filling the knowledge gaps in the characteristics of VOC emissions from biogas digestate (BD), and provide a basis for exploring mitigation strategies on odor and hazardous air pollutions. View Full-Text
Keywords: swine manure; digestate; VOCs; odorous; hazardous; air pollution swine manure; digestate; VOCs; odorous; hazardous; air pollution

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Y.; Zhu, Z.; Zheng, Y.; Chen, Y.; Yin, F.; Zhang, W.; Dong, H.; Xin, H. Characterization of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Swine Manure Biogas Digestate Storage. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 411.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top