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Atmospheric Forcing of Coastal Upwelling in the Southern Baltic Sea Basin

Department of Climatology, Institute of Physical Geography and Environmental Planning, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-712 Poznań, Poland
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Atmosphere 2019, 10(6), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10060327
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Abstract

This study analyzes the atmospheric forcing of upwelling occurrence along differently oriented coastlines of the southern Baltic Sea basin. The mean daily sea surface temperature (SST) data from the summer seasons (June–August) of the years 1982–2017 made the basis for the detection of upwelling cases. For the atmospheric part of the analysis, monthly indices of four macroscale circulation patterns were used: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Scandinavian (SCAND), East Atlantic (EA) and East Atlantic/Western Russia (EATL/WRUS). In order to identify the local airflows and wind conditions, zonal and meridional regional circulation indices were constructed and introduced to the analysis. Within the southern Baltic Sea basin, upwelling occurs most frequently along the zonally oriented southern coasts of Sweden, and least frequently along the southern (Polish) and eastern (Lithuanian-Latvian) coasts. Among the macroscale circulation patterns, the SCAND has the strongest impact on the horizontal flow of surface sea waters in the southern Baltic, which triggers upwelling. The summer NAO and EA appeared to have a weak effect on upwelling occurrence, and EATL/WRUS have the smallest impact. Local circulation indices allowed us to recognize the atmospheric control of upwelling frequency better than the indices of the macroscale patterns. Anomalies in upwelling frequency are their highest at the positive/negative phase of the zonal circulation, particularly along the southern and eastern coast of the southern Baltic Sea basin. View Full-Text
Keywords: Baltic Sea; coastal upwelling; macroscale circulation patterns; local circulation indices Baltic Sea; coastal upwelling; macroscale circulation patterns; local circulation indices
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Bednorz, E.; Półrolniczak, M.; Czernecki, B.; Tomczyk, A.M. Atmospheric Forcing of Coastal Upwelling in the Southern Baltic Sea Basin. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 327.

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