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Biogeochemical Equation of State for the Sea-Air Interface

1
Climate Ocean Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Santa Fe, NM 87545, USA
2
Chemistry Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 USA
3
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
4
Computational Earth Sciences Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
5
International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7340, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(5), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10050230
Received: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Chemistry of the Air-Water Interface)
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Abstract

We have recently argued that marine interfacial surface tension must have a distinctive biogeography because it is mediated by fresh surfactant macromolecules released locally through the food web. Here we begin the process of quantification for associated climate flux implications. A low dimensionality (planar) equation of state is invoked at the global scale as our main analysis tool. For the reader’s convenience, fundamental surfactant physical chemistry principles are reviewed first, as they pertain to tangential forces that may alter oceanic eddy, ripple, and bubble fields. A model Prandtl (neutral) wind stress regime is defined for demonstration purposes. It is given the usual dependence on roughness, but then in turn on the tension reduction quantity known as surface pressure. This captures the main net influences of biology and detrital organics on global microlayer physics. Based on well-established surrogate species, tangent pressures are related to distributed ecodynamics as reflected by the current marine systems science knowledge base. Reductions to momentum and related heat-vapor exchange plus gas and salt transfer are estimated and placed on a coarse biogeographic grid. High primary production situations appear to strongly control all types of transfer, whether seasonally or regionally. Classic chemical oceanographic data on boundary state composition and behaviors are well reproduced, and there is a high degree of consistency with conventional micrometeorological wisdom. But although our initial best guesses are quite revealing, coordinated laboratory and field experiments will be required to confirm the broad hypotheses even partially. We note that if the concepts have large scale validity, they are super-Gaian. Biological control over key planetary climate-transfer modes may be accomplished through just a single rapidly renewed organic monolayer. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine surface tension and pressure; surfactant macromolecules; proxy compounds; food web dynamics; interfacial equation of state; upper ocean eddies; capillaries; bubbles; Prandtl stress; ecogeography; momentum-heat-gas-salt exchange; global monolayer marine surface tension and pressure; surfactant macromolecules; proxy compounds; food web dynamics; interfacial equation of state; upper ocean eddies; capillaries; bubbles; Prandtl stress; ecogeography; momentum-heat-gas-salt exchange; global monolayer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Elliott, S.; Menzo, Z.; Jayasinghe, A.; Allen, H.C.; Ogunro, O.; Gibson, G.; Hoffman, F.; Wingenter, O. Biogeochemical Equation of State for the Sea-Air Interface. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 230.

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