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Open AccessArticle

A Comparative Study of Stack Emissions from Straight-Line and Zigzag Brick Kilns in Nepal

1
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), G.P.O. Box 3226, Kathmandu 44700, Nepal
2
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel 45200, Nepal
3
Department of Environmental Science, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76706, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10030107
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality in the Asia-Pacific Region)
Nepal has approximately 1000 operational brick kilns, which contribute significantly to ambient air pollution. They also account for 1.81% of the total bricks produced in the South Asian region. Little is known about their emissions, which are consequently not represented in regional/global emission inventories. This study compared emissions from seven brick kilns. Four were Fixed Chimney Bull’s Trench Kilns (FCBTKs) and three were Induced-Draught Zigzag Kilns (IDZKs). The concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), black carbon (BC), and particulate matter (PM) with a diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) were measured. The respective emission factors (EFs) were estimated using the carbon mass balance method. The average fuel-based EF for CO2, SO2, PM2.5, and BC were estimated as 1633 ± 134, 22 ± 22, 3.8 ± 2.6 and 0.6 ± 0.2 g per kg, respectively, for all FCBTKs. Those for IDZKs were 1981 ± 232, 24 ± 22, 3.1 ± 1, and 0.4 ± 0.2 g per kg, respectively. Overall, the study found that converting the technology from straight-line kilns to zigzag kilns can reduce PM2.5 emissions by ~20% and BC emissions by ~30%, based on emission factor estimates of per kilogram of fuel. While considering per kilogram of fired brick, emission reductions were approximately 40% for PM2.5 and 55% for BC, but this definitely depends on proper stacking and firing procedures. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; brick kiln; South Asia; emission factor; gaseous pollutant; particulate pollutants air pollution; brick kiln; South Asia; emission factor; gaseous pollutant; particulate pollutants
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nepal, S.; Mahapatra, P.S.; Adhikari, S.; Shrestha, S.; Sharma, P.; Shrestha, K.L.; Pradhan, B.B.; Puppala, S.P. A Comparative Study of Stack Emissions from Straight-Line and Zigzag Brick Kilns in Nepal. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 107.

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