Next Article in Journal
Nanoparticle Behaviour in an Urban Street Canyon at Different Heights and Implications on Indoor Respiratory Doses
Previous Article in Journal
Emission Factors for Biofuels and Coal Combustion in a Domestic Boiler of 18 kW
Open AccessArticle

Rainfall Estimates with Respect to Rainfall Types using S-band Polarimetric Radar in Korea

1
Atmospheric Environmental Research Institute, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea
2
Department of Environmental and Atmospheric Sciences, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120773
Received: 22 October 2019 / Revised: 14 November 2019 / Accepted: 1 December 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weather Radar Applications on Meteorology and Hydrology in East Asia)
To investigate the impact of rainfall type on rainfall estimation using polarimetric variables, rainfall relations such as those between rain rate (R) and specific differential phase (KDP), between R and KDP/differential reflectivity (ZDR), and between R and reflectivity (Z)/ZDR, were examined with respect to the precipitation type classified using drop size distributions (DSDs) measured by a disdrometer. The classification of rainfall type was assessed using four different methods: temporal rainfall variation; and the relations between intercept parameter (N0) and R; normalized intercept parameter (Nw) and median diameter (D0); and slope parameter (Λ) and R. The logN0–R relation discriminated between convective and stratiform rain with less standard deviation than the other methods as shown by the Z–ZDR scatter with respect to the rainfall types. The transition type from convective to stratiform and vice versa occurred in the stratiform rain region for all methods. To apply the classified rainfall relations to radar rainfall estimation, logNw and D0 were retrieved from polarimetric variables to discriminate the rainfall types in the radar domain. The DSD classification was verified with the vertical profile of reflectivity extracted at two positions corresponding to gage sites. Statistical analysis of four different rainfall events showed that rainfall estimation using the relations with precipitation type were better than those obtained without classification. The R(KDP,ZDR) relation with classification performed best on rainfall estimation for all rainfall events. The greatest improvement in rainfall estimation was obtained from R(Z,ZDR) with classification. We conclude that the classification of rainfall type leads to more accurate rainfall estimation. The different relations R(KDP), R(KDP,ZDR), and R(Z,ZDR) with respect to the rain types using polarimetric radar show improvement compared to estimation without consideration of rainfall type, in Korea.
Keywords: rainfall types; rainfall estimate; drop size distribution; polarimetric variables; rainfall relation rainfall types; rainfall estimate; drop size distribution; polarimetric variables; rainfall relation
MDPI and ACS Style

You, C.; Kang, M.; Lee, D.-I. Rainfall Estimates with Respect to Rainfall Types using S-band Polarimetric Radar in Korea. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 773.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop