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Open AccessArticle

Temperature Prediction Using the Missing Data Refinement Model Based on a Long Short-Term Memory Neural Network

1
School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Korea
2
School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(11), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10110718
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 4 November 2019 / Accepted: 14 November 2019 / Published: 16 November 2019
In this paper, we propose a new temperature prediction model based on deep learning by using real observed weather data. To this end, a huge amount of model training data is needed, but these data should not be defective. However, there is a limitation in collecting weather data since it is not possible to measure data that have been missed. Thus, the collected data are apt to be incomplete, with random or extended gaps. Therefore, the proposed temperature prediction model is used to refine missing data in order to restore missed weather data. In addition, since temperature is seasonal, the proposed model utilizes a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network, which is a kind of recurrent neural network known to be suitable for time-series data modeling. Furthermore, different configurations of LSTMs are investigated so that the proposed LSTM-based model can reflect the time-series traits of the temperature data. In particular, when a part of the data is detected as missing, it is restored by using the proposed model’s refinement function. After all the missing data are refined, the LSTM-based model is retrained using the refined data. Finally, the proposed LSTM-based temperature prediction model can predict the temperature through three time steps: 6, 12, and 24 h. Furthermore, the model is extended to predict 7 and 14 day future temperatures. The performance of the proposed model is measured by its root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and compared with the RMSEs of a feedforward deep neural network, a conventional LSTM neural network without any refinement function, and a mathematical model currently used by the meteorological office in Korea. Consequently, it is shown that the proposed LSTM-based model employing LSTM-refinement achieves the lowest RMSEs for 6, 12, and 24 h temperature prediction as well as for 7 and 14 day temperature prediction, compared to other DNN-based and LSTM-based models with either no refinement or linear interpolation. Moreover, the prediction accuracy of the proposed model is higher than that of the Unified Model (UM) Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System (LDAPS) for 24 h temperature predictions. View Full-Text
Keywords: temperature prediction; deep neural network (DNN); long short-term memory (LSTM); recurrent neural network (RNN); missing data refinement; weather data temperature prediction; deep neural network (DNN); long short-term memory (LSTM); recurrent neural network (RNN); missing data refinement; weather data
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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, I.; Kim, H.S.; Lee, J.; Kim, J.H.; Song, C.H.; Kim, H.K. Temperature Prediction Using the Missing Data Refinement Model Based on a Long Short-Term Memory Neural Network. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 718.

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