Next Article in Journal
Parameterization of Wave Boundary Layer.
Previous Article in Journal
Assessing the Impact of Ozone and Particulate Matter on Mortality Rate from Respiratory Disease in Seoul, Korea
Previous Article in Special Issue
Recent Trends in Maintenance Costs for Façades Due to Air Pollution in the Oslo Quadrature, Norway
Open AccessArticle

Long-Term Trends in PAH Concentrations and Sources at Rural Background Site in Central Europe

1
Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague, Czech Republic
2
Department of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Rozvojová 1/135, 165 02 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(11), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10110687
Received: 5 September 2019 / Revised: 5 November 2019 / Accepted: 5 November 2019 / Published: 7 November 2019
: An increased burden due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a long-term air quality problem in Central and Eastern Europe. Extensive PAH monitoring has been implemented at the National Atmospheric Observatory Košetice (NAOK), a rural background site in the Czech Republic, as a representative for Central Europe. Data from NAOK are used for evaluation of PAH concentration trends and source apportionment. In total, concentrations of 14 PAHs in particulate matter (PM10) and in the gas phase between 2006 and 2016 were evaluated. The highest concentrations were measured at the beginning of the study period in 2006. Mean annual concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene, for example, showed a weak, however statistically significant decreasing trend. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to determine the sources of PAHs at NAOK, with three factors resolved. The probable origin areas of PMF factors were identified by the conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF) and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) methods. The NAOK is affected by local sources of PAHs, as well as by regional and long-range transport. The PAH concentrations correlate negatively with industrial production and traffic intensity. High PAH emissions have been linked to local heating, suggesting that the planned replacement of obsolete combustion sources in the households could improve the overall air quality situation, not only with respect to PAHs.
Keywords: PM10; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; source apportionment; positive matrix factorization; residential heating PM10; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; source apportionment; positive matrix factorization; residential heating
MDPI and ACS Style

Lhotka, R.; Pokorná, P.; Zíková, N. Long-Term Trends in PAH Concentrations and Sources at Rural Background Site in Central Europe. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 687.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop