: An increased burden due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a long-term air quality problem in Central and Eastern Europe. Extensive PAH monitoring has been implemented at the National Atmospheric Observatory Košetice (NAOK), a rural background site in the Czech Republic, as a representative for Central Europe. Data from NAOK are used for evaluation of PAH concentration trends and source apportionment. In total, concentrations of 14 PAHs in particulate matter (PM10) and in the gas phase between 2006 and 2016 were evaluated. The highest concentrations were measured at the beginning of the study period in 2006. Mean annual concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene, for example, showed a weak, however statistically significant decreasing trend. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to determine the sources of PAHs at NAOK, with three factors resolved. The probable origin areas of PMF factors were identified by the conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF) and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) methods. The NAOK is affected by local sources of PAHs, as well as by regional and long-range transport. The PAH concentrations correlate negatively with industrial production and traffic intensity. High PAH emissions have been linked to local heating, suggesting that the planned replacement of obsolete combustion sources in the households could improve the overall air quality situation, not only with respect to PAHs.
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