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Open AccessArticle

PM1 in Ambient and Indoor Air—Urban and Rural Areas in the Upper Silesian Region, Poland

Department of Air Protection, Silesian University of Technology, 22B Konarskiego St., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(11), 662;
Received: 24 September 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 26 October 2019 / Published: 30 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Air Quality)
(1) Background: The work presents results of concentration measurements of PM1, collected in the indoor air of four preschool buildings in Gliwice and its environs (Silesia Province) and in ambient air in the vicinity of four working hard coal power plants and four coking plants located in southern Poland. (2) Methods: The samples of <1 µm, 1–2.5 µm, 2.5–10 µm, and >10 µm fractions were collected with the use of Dekati® PM10 cascade impactor, and concentrations of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Se) were determined. (3) Results: The concentrations of PM1 changed in the range of 3.1 μg/m3–65.3 μg/m3. Among trace elements, the highest concentrations in indoor air were evidenced for Cr (129–219 ng/m3), while in outdoor air for Pb (12.6–21.2 ng/m3). Principal Component Analysis PCA analysis extracted three factors of rural dusts, city dusts, and natural soils. (4) Conclusions: The paper points to accumulation of carcinogenic Cd, Cr, and Ni in indoor air, and significant contribution of trace elements in PM1, which, owing to long-lasting exposure and elevated sensitivity of developing organisms, may evoke effects on health of children. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor air; preschools; ambient air; PM1; trace elements indoor air; preschools; ambient air; PM1; trace elements
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Mainka, A.; Zajusz-Zubek, E. PM1 in Ambient and Indoor Air—Urban and Rural Areas in the Upper Silesian Region, Poland. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 662.

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