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Open AccessArticle

Measurement of SO2 and NO2 in Ship Plumes Using Rotary Unmanned Aerial System

by Fan Zhou 1,*, Jing Gu 1, Wei Chen 2 and Xunpeng Ni 2
1
College of Information Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306, China
2
Pudong Maritime Safety Administration of the People’s Republic of China, Shanghai 200137, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(11), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10110657
Received: 15 September 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 25 October 2019 / Published: 29 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measurement of Atmospheric Composition by Unmanned Aerial Systems)
A key research problem in the field of ship emissions is how to perform efficient, accurate, and timely measurements of pollutant gases in a ship’s plume. To address this, we have designed and implemented an unmanned aerial system (UAS) that consists of a rotary unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), a lightweight pod for exhaust monitoring, and a mobile control terminal. The UAV carries the pod and a camera and can fly into a plume at close range. The pod is equipped with a gas acquisition module, SO2 and NO2 sensors, and communication modules to measure the gases in real time. The mobile control terminal is convenient for operators and receives real-time video and measured gas concentrations. We measured SO2 and NO2 in six ship plumes in 2018 to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the UAS. The SO2/NO2 ratios in high-sulfur fuel were significantly higher than of those in low-sulfur fuel and can thus be used for distinguishing the sulfur content of ship fuel. In comparison to land-based and airborne-based measurements, we conclude that the UAS provides an active, close-range, low-cost, and accurate measurement approach for monitoring ship emissions in real time. View Full-Text
Keywords: unmanned aerial system; ship emissions; unmanned aerial vehicle; small sensor technology unmanned aerial system; ship emissions; unmanned aerial vehicle; small sensor technology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, F.; Gu, J.; Chen, W.; Ni, X. Measurement of SO2 and NO2 in Ship Plumes Using Rotary Unmanned Aerial System. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 657.

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