A dilution tunnel was designed for the characterization of brake-wear particle emissions up to 10 μm on a brake dyno. The particulate matter emission levels from a single front brake were found to be 4.5 mg/km (1.5 mg/km being smaller than 2.5 μm) over a novel real-world brake cycle, for a commercial Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) pad. Particle Number (PN) emissions as defined in exhaust regulations were in the order of 1.5 to 6 × 109
particles per km per brake (#/km/brake). Concentration levels could exceed the linearity range of full-flow Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) over specific braking events, but remained at background levels for 60% of the cycle. Similar concentrations measured with condensation and optical counters suggesting that the majority of emitted particles were larger the 300 nm. Application of higher braking pressures resulted in elevated PN emissions and the systematic formation of nano-sized particles that were thermally stable at 350 °C. Volatile particles were observed only during successive harsh braking events leading to elevated temperatures. The onset depended on the type of brakes and their prehistory, but always at relatively high disc temperatures (280 to 490 °C).
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