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Open AccessArticle

Trace Metal Content and Health Risk Assessment of PM10 in an Urban Environment of León, Mexico

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Universidad Autónoma del Carmen, Calle 56 Num. 4 Esq. Ave. Concordia, Col. Benito Juárez, C.P. 24180 Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche, Mexico
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Conacyt-Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Av. Héroe de Nacozari No. 480, Campus 6 de Investigaciones, C.P. 24070 San Francisco de Campeche, Campeche, Mexico
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Civil Engineering Department, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
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Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CECyT 17 Leon. Boulevard Caliope Num. 1055, Col. Las Joyas, León, 7738 Guanajuato, Mexico
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Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA
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Centro de Investigación en Corrosión de la Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Av. Héroe de Nacozari No. 480, Campus 6 de Investigaciones, C.P. 24070 San Francisco de Campeche, Campeche, Mexico
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Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo Léon, Ave Universidad S/N Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 66455 San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, Mexico
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Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Investigación Científica s/n, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico, CDMX, Mexico
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(10), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10100573
Received: 26 August 2019 / Revised: 13 September 2019 / Accepted: 17 September 2019 / Published: 23 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure Assessment of Air Pollution)
Trace metal concentrations in PM10 were measured in an urban–industrial site in León, Mexico in three different seasons. PM10 were collected in quartz fiber filters of 47 mm diameter using low volume equipment operating with a controlled flow of 5 L min−1 over 24 h. Mass concentrations were gravimetrically determined and it was found that PM10 samples showed values in excess of the Mexican standard and the established values by WHO during cold dry and warm dry seasons. Morphology of selected particles was studied by SEM-EDS analysis, and the elemental composition was determined. Collected samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry in order to quantify ambient air concentrations of some trace metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Fe, Mg, and Mn). Median concentrations of trace metals showed the maximum value for iron (3.079 μgm−3) and the minimum value for Cd (0.050 μgm−3) over the entire period. From the meteorological analysis, it was found that sources located SW and ESE of the sampling site contributed to the levels of trace metals in PM10 in the studied site. The health risk assessment found that the population of León is at increased lifetime risk of experiencing cancer because of exposure to these concentrations of PM10 and their trace metal content. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM10; heavy metals; risk analysis; SEM-EDS; enrichment factor PM10; heavy metals; risk analysis; SEM-EDS; enrichment factor
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Cerón Bretón, J.G.; Cerón Bretón, R.M.; Espinosa Guzman, A.A.; Guarnaccia, C.; Martínez Morales, S.; Lara Severino, R.C.; Rangel Marrón, M.; Hernández López, G.; Carranco Lozada, S.E.; Kahl, J.D.; Pech Pech, I.E.; Ramírez Lara, E.; Espinosa Fuentes, M.L. Trace Metal Content and Health Risk Assessment of PM10 in an Urban Environment of León, Mexico. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 573.

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