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L Chromosome Behaviour and Chromosomal Imprinting in Sciara Coprophila

1
Nazarbayev University School of Medicine, 5/1 Kerei, Zhanibek Khandar Street, Astana Z05K4F4, Kazakhstan
2
Epigenetics Laboratory, Department of Natural Sciences, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov str. 2, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
3
Genomics laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology SB RAS, Lavrentyev ave, 8/2, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2018, 9(9), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9090440
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution, Composition and Regulation of Supernumerary B Chromosomes)
The retention of supernumerary chromosomes in the germ-line of Sciara coprophila is part of a highly-intricate pattern of chromosome behaviours that have fascinated cytogeneticists for over 80 years. Germ-line limited (termed L or “limited”) chromosomes are cytologically heterochromatic and late-replicating, with more recent studies confirming they possess epigenetic hallmarks characteristic of constitutive heterochromatin. Little is known about their genetic constitution although they have been found to undergo cycles of condensation and de-condensation at different stages of development. Unlike most supernumeraries, the L chromosomes in S. coprophila are thought to be indispensable, although in two closely related species Sciara ocellaris and Sciara reynoldsi the L chromosomes, have been lost during evolution. Here, we review what we know about L chromosomes in Sciara coprophila. We end by discussing how study of the L chromosome condensation cycle has provided insight into the site and timing of both the erasure of parental “imprints” and also the placement of a putative “imprint” that might be carried by the sperm into the egg. View Full-Text
Keywords: supernumerary chromosomes; heterochromatin; parent-of-origin effects; paternal X chromosome; maternal X chromosome; controlling element supernumerary chromosomes; heterochromatin; parent-of-origin effects; paternal X chromosome; maternal X chromosome; controlling element
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Singh, P.B.; Belyakin, S.N. L Chromosome Behaviour and Chromosomal Imprinting in Sciara Coprophila. Genes 2018, 9, 440.

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