Next Article in Journal
Transmission and Drive Involving Parasitic B Chromosomes
Next Article in Special Issue
Seasonal and Sexual Differences in the Microbiota of the Hoopoe Uropygial Secretion
Previous Article in Journal
Structural and Evolutionary Insights within the Polysaccharide Deacetylase Gene Family of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus
Previous Article in Special Issue
Gut Microbiota of Great Spotted Cuckoo Nestlings is a Mixture of Those of Their Foster Magpie Siblings and of Cuckoo Adults
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Olfactory Communication via Microbiota: What Is Known in Birds?

Research Group Chemical Signalling, Department of Animal Behaviour, Bielefeld University, Konsequenz 45, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Genes 2018, 9(8), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9080387
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coevolution of Hosts and their Microbiome)
  |  
PDF [725 KB, uploaded 2 August 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Animal bodies harbour a complex and diverse community of microorganisms and accumulating evidence has revealed that microbes can influence the hosts’ behaviour, for example by altering body odours. Microbial communities produce odorant molecules as metabolic by-products and thereby modulate the biochemical signalling profiles of their animal hosts. As the diversity and the relative abundance of microbial species are influenced by several factors including host-specific factors, environmental factors and social interactions, there are substantial individual variations in the composition of microbial communities. In turn, the variations in microbial communities would consequently affect social and communicative behaviour by influencing recognition cues of the hosts. Therefore, microbiota studies have a great potential to expand our understanding of recognition of conspecifics, group members and kin. In this review, we aim to summarize existing knowledge of the factors influencing the microbial communities and the effect of microbiota on olfactory cue production and social and communicative behaviour. We concentrate on avian taxa, yet we also include recent research performed on non-avian species when necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: birds; olfaction; odour; social communication; microbiota; skin; uropygial gland; feathers; gut; chemical signalling birds; olfaction; odour; social communication; microbiota; skin; uropygial gland; feathers; gut; chemical signalling
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Maraci, Ö.; Engel, K.; Caspers, B.A. Olfactory Communication via Microbiota: What Is Known in Birds? Genes 2018, 9, 387.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Genes EISSN 2073-4425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top