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Tissue Specificity and Dynamics of Sex-Biased Gene Expression in a Common Frog Population with Differentiated, Yet Homomorphic, Sex Chromosomes

1
Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
2
Department of Biology, Indiana University, Jordan Hall, 1001 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
3
Institute of Science and Technology Austria, Am Campus 1, 3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first authors.
Genes 2018, 9(6), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9060294
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolutionary Life Cycle of Sex Chromosomes)
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Abstract

Sex-biased genes are central to the study of sexual selection, sexual antagonism, and sex chromosome evolution. We describe a comprehensive de novo assembled transcriptome in the common frog Rana temporaria based on five developmental stages and three adult tissues from both sexes, obtained from a population with karyotypically homomorphic but genetically differentiated sex chromosomes. This allows the study of sex-biased gene expression throughout development, and its effect on the rate of gene evolution while accounting for pleiotropic expression, which is known to negatively correlate with the evolutionary rate. Overall, sex-biased genes had little overlap among developmental stages and adult tissues. Late developmental stages and gonad tissues had the highest numbers of stage- or tissue-specific genes. We find that pleiotropic gene expression is a better predictor than sex bias for the evolutionary rate of genes, though it often interacts with sex bias. Although genetically differentiated, the sex chromosomes were not enriched in sex-biased genes, possibly due to a very recent arrest of XY recombination. These results extend our understanding of the developmental dynamics, tissue specificity, and genomic localization of sex-biased genes. View Full-Text
Keywords: tissue specificity; gene expression; sex bias; development; adult tissues; rate of evolution; pleiotropy; sex chromosomes tissue specificity; gene expression; sex bias; development; adult tissues; rate of evolution; pleiotropy; sex chromosomes
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Ma, W.-J.; Veltsos, P.; Toups, M.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Sermier, R.; Jeffries, D.L.; Perrin, N. Tissue Specificity and Dynamics of Sex-Biased Gene Expression in a Common Frog Population with Differentiated, Yet Homomorphic, Sex Chromosomes. Genes 2018, 9, 294.

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