Next Article in Journal
Delivery of a Clinical Genomics Service
Next Article in Special Issue
Three-Dimensional Mapping of mRNA Export through the Nuclear Pore Complex
Previous Article in Journal
High-Performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) Tools and Applications for Big Data Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Regulation of mRNA Trafficking by Nuclear Pore Complexes
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Genes 2014, 5(4), 982-1000;

Sumoylation is Required for the Cytoplasmic Accumulation of a Subset of mRNAs

Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, MSB Room 5336, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 August 2014 / Revised: 26 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of mRNA Nuclear Export)
Full-Text   |   PDF [7833 KB, uploaded 20 October 2014]   |  


In order to discover novel proteins that promote the nuclear export of newly synthesized mRNAs in mammalian cells, we carried out a limited RNAi screen for proteins required for the proper cytoplasmic distribution of a model intronless mRNA. From this screen we obtained two hits, Ubc9 (SUMO-conjugating E2 enzyme) and GANP (germinal center-associated nuclear protein). Depletion of Ubc9 inhibited the proper cytoplasmic distribution of certain overexpressed intronless mRNAs, while depletion of GANP affected all tested mRNAs. Depletion of Sae1, which is also required for sumoylation, partially inhibited the cytoplasmic distribution of our model mRNA. Interestingly, the block in cytoplasmic accumulation in Ubc9-depleted cells could be overcome if an intron was incorporated into the mRNA. Surprisingly, Ubc9-depleted cells had normal nuclear export of newly synthesized intronless mRNAs, indicating that the observed accumulation of the model mRNA in the nuclei of transfected cells was likely due to some more general perturbation. Indeed, depletion of Ubc9, coupled with the overexpression of the intronless mRNAs, caused the redistribution of the nuclear speckle protein SC35 to cytoplasmic foci. Our results suggest that sumoylation may play a role in the proper assembly of mRNPs and/or the distribution of key RNA binding proteins, and may thus contribute to general protein expression patterns. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNAi; mRNA nuclear export; Ubc9; Sae1; sumoylation; GANP; mRNP RNAi; mRNA nuclear export; Ubc9; Sae1; sumoylation; GANP; mRNP

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, H.; Mahadevan, K.; Palazzo, A.F. Sumoylation is Required for the Cytoplasmic Accumulation of a Subset of mRNAs. Genes 2014, 5, 982-1000.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Genes EISSN 2073-4425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top