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Article

Evaluation of Reference Genes for Transcriptional Profiling in Two Cockroach Models

by 1,2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2 and 1,2,*
1
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental Biology and Applied Technology, Institute of Insect Science and Technology, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
2
Guangmeiyuan R&D Center, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental Biology and Applied Technology, South China Normal University, Meizhou 514000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alfred M. Handler
Genes 2021, 12(12), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12121880 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 October 2021 / Revised: 17 November 2021 / Accepted: 24 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana are the most common and synanthropic household pests of interest to public health. While they have increasingly served as model systems in hemimetabolous insects for studying many biological issues, there is still a lack of stable reference gene evaluation for reliable quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) outputs and functional genomics. Here, we evaluated the expression variation of common insect reference genes, including the historically used actin, across various tissues and developmental stages, and also under experimental treatment conditions in these two species by using three individual algorithms (geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder) and a comprehensive program (RefFinder). RPL32 in B. germanica and EF1α in P. americana showed the overall lowest variation among all examined samples. Based on the stability rankings by RefFinder, the optimal but varied reference genes under specific conditions were selected for qPCR normalization. In addition, the combination of RPL32 and EF1α was recommended for all the tested tissues and stages in B. germanica, whereas the combination of multiple reference genes was unfavorable in P. americana. This study provides a condition-specific resource of reference gene selection for accurate gene expression profiling and facilitating functional genomics in these two important cockroaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: cockroaches; reference genes; qPCR normalization; gene expression; functional genomics cockroaches; reference genes; qPCR normalization; gene expression; functional genomics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, S.; Liu, Y.; Liao, M.; Yang, Y.; Bai, Y.; Li, N.; Li, S.; Luan, Y.; Chen, N. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Transcriptional Profiling in Two Cockroach Models. Genes 2021, 12, 1880. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12121880

AMA Style

Zhu S, Liu Y, Liao M, Yang Y, Bai Y, Li N, Li S, Luan Y, Chen N. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Transcriptional Profiling in Two Cockroach Models. Genes. 2021; 12(12):1880. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12121880

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Shen, Yongjun Liu, Mingtao Liao, Yang Yang, Yu Bai, Na Li, Sheng Li, Yunxia Luan, and Nan Chen. 2021. "Evaluation of Reference Genes for Transcriptional Profiling in Two Cockroach Models" Genes 12, no. 12: 1880. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12121880

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