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Article

A New Census of Protein Tandem Repeats and Their Relationship with Intrinsic Disorder

1
ZHAW Life Sciences und Facility Management, Applied Computational Genomics, 8820 Wädenswil, Switzerland
2
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
3
Science of Life Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Carbon Delta AG, 8002 Zürich, Switzerland.
Present address: Vildly AB, 385 31 Kalmar, Sweden.
Genes 2020, 11(4), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11040407
Received: 9 March 2020 / Revised: 29 March 2020 / Accepted: 1 April 2020 / Published: 9 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genes at Ten)
Protein tandem repeats (TRs) are often associated with immunity-related functions and diseases. Since that last census of protein TRs in 1999, the number of curated proteins increased more than seven-fold and new TR prediction methods were published. TRs appear to be enriched with intrinsic disorder and vice versa. The significance and the biological reasons for this association are unknown. Here, we characterize protein TRs across all kingdoms of life and their overlap with intrinsic disorder in unprecedented detail. Using state-of-the-art prediction methods, we estimate that 50.9% of proteins contain at least one TR, often located at the sequence flanks. Positive linear correlation between the proportion of TRs and the protein length was observed universally, with Eukaryotes in general having more TRs, but when the difference in length is taken into account the difference is quite small. TRs were enriched with disorder-promoting amino acids and were inside intrinsically disordered regions. Many such TRs were homorepeats. Our results support that TRs mostly originate by duplication and are involved in essential functions such as transcription processes, structural organization, electron transport and iron-binding. In viruses, TRs are found in proteins essential for virulence. View Full-Text
Keywords: tandem repeat; homorepeat; domain repeat; protein repeat; repeat prediction; intrinsic disorder; protein function; Swiss-Prot tandem repeat; homorepeat; domain repeat; protein repeat; repeat prediction; intrinsic disorder; protein function; Swiss-Prot
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MDPI and ACS Style

Delucchi, M.; Schaper, E.; Sachenkova, O.; Elofsson, A.; Anisimova, M. A New Census of Protein Tandem Repeats and Their Relationship with Intrinsic Disorder. Genes 2020, 11, 407. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11040407

AMA Style

Delucchi M, Schaper E, Sachenkova O, Elofsson A, Anisimova M. A New Census of Protein Tandem Repeats and Their Relationship with Intrinsic Disorder. Genes. 2020; 11(4):407. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11040407

Chicago/Turabian Style

Delucchi, Matteo, Elke Schaper, Oxana Sachenkova, Arne Elofsson, and Maria Anisimova. 2020. "A New Census of Protein Tandem Repeats and Their Relationship with Intrinsic Disorder" Genes 11, no. 4: 407. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11040407

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