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Present and Future Salmonid Cytogenetics

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, University of Ahi Evran, Kirsehir 40200, Turkey
Laboratory of Fish Genetics, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Czech Academy of Sciences, 27721 Liběchov, Czech Republic
Department of Bioinformatics, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising, Germany
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Bartin University, Bartin 74000, Turkey
Physics and Biology Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904 0495, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(12), 1462;
Received: 6 November 2020 / Revised: 30 November 2020 / Accepted: 2 December 2020 / Published: 6 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Cytogenetics: Present and Future)
Salmonids are extremely important economically and scientifically; therefore, dynamic developments in their research have occurred and will continue occurring in the future. At the same time, their complex phylogeny and taxonomy are challenging for traditional approaches in research. Here, we first provide discoveries regarding the hitherto completely unknown cytogenetic characteristics of the Anatolian endemic flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus, and summarize the presently known, albeit highly complicated, situation in the genus Salmo. Secondly, by outlining future directions of salmonid cytogenomics, we have produced a prototypical virtual karyotype of Salmo trutta, the closest relative of S. platycephalus. This production is now possible thanks to the high-quality genome assembled to the chromosome level in S. trutta via soft-masking, including a direct labelling of repetitive sequences along the chromosome sequence. Repetitive sequences were crucial for traditional fish cytogenetics and hence should also be utilized in fish cytogenomics. As such virtual karyotypes become increasingly available in the very near future, it is necessary to integrate both present and future approaches to maximize their respective benefits. Finally, we show how the presumably repetitive sequences in salmonids can change the understanding of the overall relationship between genome size and G+C content, creating another outstanding question in salmonid cytogenomics waiting to be resolved. View Full-Text
Keywords: chromosome banding; cytotaxonomy of trout; FISH; NOR phenotype; rDNA; Salmo platycephalus chromosome banding; cytotaxonomy of trout; FISH; NOR phenotype; rDNA; Salmo platycephalus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gaffaroglu, M.; Majtánová, Z.; Symonová, R.; Pelikánová, Š.; Unal, S.; Lajbner, Z.; Ráb, P. Present and Future Salmonid Cytogenetics. Genes 2020, 11, 1462.

AMA Style

Gaffaroglu M, Majtánová Z, Symonová R, Pelikánová Š, Unal S, Lajbner Z, Ráb P. Present and Future Salmonid Cytogenetics. Genes. 2020; 11(12):1462.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gaffaroglu, Muhammet, Zuzana Majtánová, Radka Symonová, Šárka Pelikánová, Sevgi Unal, Zdeněk Lajbner, and Petr Ráb. 2020. "Present and Future Salmonid Cytogenetics" Genes 11, no. 12: 1462.

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