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High-Concentrate Feeding to Dairy Cows Induces Apoptosis via the NOD1/Caspase-8 Pathway in Mammary Epithelial Cells

College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
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Genes 2020, 11(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11010107
Received: 7 November 2019 / Revised: 13 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 17 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
(1) Background: The effects of a high-concentrate (HC) diet in inducing mammary epithelial cell apoptosis in dairy cows via the NOD1/Caspase-8 pathway have never been investigated before the current study. (2) Methods: Twelve Holstein Frisian cows at mid-lactation were selected to conduct this research. The animals were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 6), and both groups received one of two diets: a low-concentrate (LC) (forage: concentrate 6:4) or a high-concentrate (HC) (forage: concentrate 4:6) diet. Furthermore, an enzyme activity assay, tunnel cell assay, RT-qPCR, western blotting, and an immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) assay were performed to elucidate the effect of an HC diet in the mammary gland of dairy cows. (3) Results: The tunnel cell assay revealed a significant number of apoptotic cells in HC group, and the concentration of Caspase-3, and Caspase-8 was higher in the HC group than in the LC group. NOD1, Rip-2, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Caspase-9, and Bax mRNA expressions, and NOD1, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, and Bax protein expressions, in the HC group were markedly higher than those in the LC group. Furthermore, Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expressions were markedly decreased in the HC compared to those in the LC group. (4) Conclusions: A HC diet fed to dairy cows incites subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), which increases the iE-DAP concentration and induces apoptosis in the mammary gland via the NOD1/Caspase-8 pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: mammary epithelial cell apoptosis; iE-DAP; NOD1; SARA; dairy cows mammary epithelial cell apoptosis; iE-DAP; NOD1; SARA; dairy cows
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ul Aabdin, Z.; Cheng, X.; Dai, H.; Wang, Y.; Sahito, B.; Roy, A.C.; Memon, M.A.; Shen, X. High-Concentrate Feeding to Dairy Cows Induces Apoptosis via the NOD1/Caspase-8 Pathway in Mammary Epithelial Cells. Genes 2020, 11, 107.

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