Fat deposition in pigs, which significantly contributes to meat quality, fattening efficiency, reproductive performance, and immunity, is critically affected by preadipocyte adipogenic differentiation. We elucidated adipogenesis in pigs using transcriptome analysis. Preadipocytes from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of Landrace piglets were differentiated into adipocytes in vitro. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) used to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during preadipocyte differentiation up to day 8 revealed 15,918 known and 586 novel genes. We detected 21, 144, and 394 DEGs, respectively, including 16 genes differentially expressed at days 2, 4 and 8 compared to day 0. Th number of DEGs increased time-dependently. Lipid metabolism, cell differentiation and proliferation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling, and steroid biosynthesis were significant at days 2, 4, and 8 compared to day 0 (adjusted p
< 0.05). Short time-series expression miner (STEM) analysis obtained 26 clusters of differential gene expression patterns, and nine were significant (p
< 0.05). Functional analysis showed many significantly enriched lipid deposition- and cellular process-related biological processes and pathways in profiles 9, 21, 22, and 24. Glycerolipid and fatty-acid metabolism, PPAR signaling, fatty-acid degradation, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt), and TNF signaling were observed during preadipocyte differentiation in vitro. These findings will facilitate the comprehension of preadipocyte differentiation and fat deposition in pigs.
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