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Open AccessReview

RNA Modifications Modulate Activation of Innate Toll-Like Receptors

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Heidelberg University Hospital, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
2
Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, 55128 Mainz, Germany
3
Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Technical University Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10020092
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Modifications)
Self/foreign discrimination by the innate immune system depends on receptors that identify molecular patterns as associated to pathogens. Among others, this group includes endosomal Toll-like receptors, among which Toll-like receptors (TLR) 3, 7, 8, and 13 recognize and discriminate mammalian from microbial, potentially pathogen-associated, RNA. One of the discriminatory principles is the recognition of endogenous RNA modifications. Previous work has identified a couple of RNA modifications that impede activation of TLR signaling when incorporated in synthetic RNA molecules. Of note, work that is more recent has now shown that RNA modifications in their naturally occurring context can have immune-modulatory functions: Gm, a naturally occurring ribose-methylation within tRNA resulted in a lack of TLR7 stimulation and within a defined sequence context acted as antagonist. Additional RNA modifications with immune-modulatory functions have now been identified and recent work also indicates that RNA modifications within the context of whole prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells are indeed used for immune-modulation. This review will discuss new findings and developments in the field of immune-modulatory RNA modifications. View Full-Text
Keywords: innate immunity; methylation; RNA modifications; Toll-like receptors innate immunity; methylation; RNA modifications; Toll-like receptors
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Freund, I.; Eigenbrod, T.; Helm, M.; Dalpke, A.H. RNA Modifications Modulate Activation of Innate Toll-Like Receptors. Genes 2019, 10, 92.

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