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Open AccessArticle

Genomic Diversity of Common Sequence Types of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Products of Animal Origin in South Africa

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Bacteriology Division, Agricultural Research Council: Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Onderstepoort, Pretoria 0110, South Africa
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Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, Science Campus, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6 Florida 1709, South Africa
3
Biotechnology Platform, Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Onderstepoort, Pretoria 0110, South Africa
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Directorate of Veterinary Public Health, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Private Bag X 138, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
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Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(12), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10121007
Received: 4 September 2019 / Revised: 8 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Genetics and Genomics)
Listeria monocytogenes is a highly fatal foodborne causative agent that has been implicated in numerous outbreaks and related deaths of listeriosis in the world. In this study, six L. monocytogenes isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products were analysed using Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) to identify virulence and resistance genes, prophage sequences, PCR-serogroups, and sequence types (STs). The WGS identified four different STs (ST1, ST121, ST204, and ST876) that belonged to serogroup 4b (lineage I) and 1/2a (lineage II). Core genome, and average nucleotide identity (ANI) phylogenetic analyses showed that the majority of strains from serogroup 4b (lineage I) clustered together. However, two isolates that belong to serogroup 1/2a (lineage II) grouped far from each other and the other strains. Examination of reference-guided scaffolds for the presence of prophages using the PHAge Search Tool Enhanced Release (PHASTER) software identified 24 diverse prophages, which were either intact or incomplete/questionable. The National Center for Biotechnology Information- Nucleotide Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (NCBI-BLASTn) revealed that Listeria monocytogenes strains in this study shared some known major virulence genes that are encoded in Listeria pathogenicity islands 1 and 3. In general, the resistance profiles for all the isolates were similar and encoded for multidrug, heavy metal, antibiotic, and sanitizer resistance genes. All the isolates in this study possessed genes that code for resistance to common food processing antiseptics such as Benzalkonium chloride.
Keywords: ready to eat; meat products; prophage; Listeria monocytogenes; virulence; resistance; Listeria pathogenicity islands and Stress Survival Islet diversity ready to eat; meat products; prophage; Listeria monocytogenes; virulence; resistance; Listeria pathogenicity islands and Stress Survival Islet diversity
MDPI and ACS Style

Matle, I.; Pierneef, R.; Mbatha, K.R.; Magwedere, K.; Madoroba, E. Genomic Diversity of Common Sequence Types of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Products of Animal Origin in South Africa. Genes 2019, 10, 1007.

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