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Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Involvement of the Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Gene Network in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

1
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
2
IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo, C.da Casazza, 98124 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(11), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10110939
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 11 November 2019 / Accepted: 15 November 2019 / Published: 18 November 2019
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive hereditary muscular disease with X-linked recessive inheritance, that leads patients to premature death. The loss of dystrophin determines membrane instability, causing cell damage and inflammatory response. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that exerts pleiotropic properties and is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. Recently, converging data from independent studies have pointed to a possible role of MIF in dystrophic muscle disorders, including DMD. In the present study, we have investigated the modulation of MIF and MIF-related genes in degenerative muscle disorders, by making use of publicly available whole-genome expression datasets. We show here a significant enrichment of MIF and related genes in muscle samples from DMD patients, as well as from patients suffering from Becker’s disease and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B. On the other hand, transcriptomic analysis of in vitro differentiated myotubes from healthy controls and DMD patients revealed no significant alteration in the expression levels of MIF-related genes. Finally, by analyzing DMD samples as a time series, we show that the modulation of the genes belonging to the MIF network is an early event in the DMD muscle and does not change with the increasing age of the patients, Overall, our analysis suggests that MIF may play a role in vivo during muscle degeneration, likely promoting inflammation and local microenvironment reaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: macrophage migration inhibitory factor; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; dystrophic muscle diseases macrophage migration inhibitory factor; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; dystrophic muscle diseases
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Lombardo, S.D.; Mazzon, E.; Mangano, K.; Basile, M.S.; Cavalli, E.; Mammana, S.; Fagone, P.; Nicoletti, F.; Petralia, M.C. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Involvement of the Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Gene Network in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Genes 2019, 10, 939.

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