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Open AccessArticle

Status of Insecticide Resistance and Its Mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii Populations from Forest Settings in South Cameroon

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Vector Borne Diseases Laboratory of the Applied Biology and Ecology Research Unit (VBID-URBEA), Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science of the University of Dschang, Dschang P.O. Box 067, Cameroon
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Laboratoire de Recherche sur le Paludisme, Organisation de Coordination pour la lutte contre les Endémies en Afrique Centrale (OCEAC), Yaoundé B. P.288, Cameroun
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Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea P.O. Box 63, Cameroon
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Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, 70013 Heraklion, Greece
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Vector Biology Liverpool School of Tropical medicine Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
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Centre for Research in Infectious Disease (CRID), Yaoundé P.O. Box 13591, Cameroun
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Pesticide Science Laboratory, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(10), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10100741
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 2 September 2019 / Accepted: 13 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
A key factor affecting malaria vector control efforts in Cameroon is the rapid expansion of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l (An. gambiae) populations; however, mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance in forest mosquito populations are still not well documented yet. The present study was conducted to screen molecular mechanisms conferring insecticide resistance in An. gambiae s.l. populations from the South Cameroon forest region. WHO bioassays were conducted with F0 An. gambiae females aged three to four days from forest (Sangmelima, Nyabessan, and Mbandjock) and urban sites (Yaoundé (Bastos and Nkolondom)), against pyrethroids (permethrin 0.75% and deltamethrin 0.05%) and carbamates (bendiocarb 0.1%). Members of the An. Gambiae s.l. species complex were identified using molecular diagnostic tools. TaqMan assays were used to screen for target site mutations. The expression profiles of eight genes implicated in insecticide resistance were assessed using RT-qPCR. Cuticle hydrocarbon lipids were measured to assess their potential implication in insecticide resistance. Both An. Gambiae and An. coluzzii were detected. An. gambiae was highly prevalent in Sangmelima, Nyabessan, Mbandjock, and Nkolondom. An. coluzzii was the only species found in the Yaoundé city center (Bastos). Low mortality rate to both pyrethroids and bendiocarb was recorded in all sites. High frequency of L1014F allele (75.32–95.82%) and low frequencies of L1014S (1.71–23.05%) and N1575Y (5.28–12.87%) were recorded. The G119S mutation (14.22–35.5%) was detected for the first time in An. gambiae populations from Cameroon. This mutation was rather absent from An. coluzzii populations. The detoxification genes Cyp6m2, Cyp9k1, Cyp6p4, Cyp6z1, as well as Cyp4g16 which catalyzes epicuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis, were found to be overexpressed in at least one population. The total cuticular hydrocarvbon content, a proxy of cuticular resistance, did not show a pattern associated with pyrethroid resistance in these populations. The rapid emergence of multiple resistance mechanisms in An. Gambiae s.l. population from the South Cameroon forest region is of big concern and could deeply affect the sustainability of insecticide-based interventions strategies in this region. View Full-Text
Keywords: insecticide resistance; G119S mutation; malaria; anopheles; South Cameroon forest region insecticide resistance; G119S mutation; malaria; anopheles; South Cameroon forest region
MDPI and ACS Style

Bamou, R.; Sonhafouo-Chiana, N.; Mavridis, K.; Tchuinkam, T.; Wondji, C.S.; Vontas, J.; Antonio-Nkondjio, C. Status of Insecticide Resistance and Its Mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii Populations from Forest Settings in South Cameroon. Genes 2019, 10, 741.

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