Next Article in Journal
Status of Insecticide Resistance and Its Mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii Populations from Forest Settings in South Cameroon
Previous Article in Journal
Genomic Analyses Identify Novel Molecular Signatures Specific for the Caenorhabditis and other Nematode Taxa Providing Novel Means for Genetic and Biochemical Studies
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Challenge of the Sponge Suberites domuncula (Olivi, 1792) in the Presence of a Symbiotic Bacterium and a Pathogen Bacterium
Open AccessArticle

Cross-Kingdom Analysis of Diversity, Evolutionary History, and Site Selection within the Eukaryotic Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Superfamily

1
Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, Université Côte d’Azur, INRA, CNRS, 400 Route des Chappes, F-06903 Sophia Antipolis, France
2
Department of Vascular Biology, Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research (ISD), Klinikum der Universität München (KUM), Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), D-81377 Munich, Germany
3
Unit of Plant Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Biology I, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, D-52056 Aachen, Germany
4
Department of Phytopathology, Center of BioSystems, Land Use and Nutrition (iFZ), Justus Liebig University (JLU), D-35392 Giessen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(10), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10100740
Received: 15 August 2019 / Revised: 17 September 2019 / Accepted: 20 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invertebrate Immunity)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factors (MIF) are multifunctional proteins regulating major processes in mammals, including activation of innate immune responses. MIF proteins also play a role in innate immunity of invertebrate organisms or serve as virulence factors in parasitic organisms, raising the question of their evolutionary history. We performed a broad survey of MIF presence or absence and evolutionary relationships across 803 species of plants, fungi, protists, and animals, and explored a potential relation with the taxonomic status, the ecology, and the lifestyle of individual species. We show that MIF evolutionary history in eukaryotes is complex, involving probable ancestral duplications, multiple gene losses and recent clade-specific re-duplications. Intriguingly, MIFs seem to be essential and highly conserved with many sites under purifying selection in some kingdoms (e.g., plants), while in other kingdoms they appear more dispensable (e.g., in fungi) or present in several diverged variants (e.g., insects, nematodes), suggesting potential neofunctionalizations within the protein superfamily. View Full-Text
Keywords: macrophage migration inhibitory factor; host-parasite interactions; innate immunity; phylogenetic reconstructions; eukaryotes macrophage migration inhibitory factor; host-parasite interactions; innate immunity; phylogenetic reconstructions; eukaryotes
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Michelet, C.; Danchin, E.G.J.; Jaouannet, M.; Bernhagen, J.; Panstruga, R.; Kogel, K.-H.; Keller, H.; Coustau, C. Cross-Kingdom Analysis of Diversity, Evolutionary History, and Site Selection within the Eukaryotic Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Superfamily. Genes 2019, 10, 740.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop