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Human Neural Stem Cell Systems to Explore Pathogen-Related Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders

1
Unit of Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2
Cellular Engineering Laboratory, Fondazione Pisana per la Scienza ONLUS, 56017 Pisa, Italy
3
Retrovirus Center and Virology Section, Department of Translational Research, University of Pisa and Virology Division, Pisa University Hospital, 56100 Pisa, Italy
4
Department of Cellular, Computational and Integrative Biology—CIBIO, University of Trento, 38122 Trento, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Cells 2020, 9(8), 1893; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081893
Received: 14 July 2020 / Revised: 7 August 2020 / Accepted: 9 August 2020 / Published: 12 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neural Stem Cell Systems to Study Brain Development and Diseases)
Building and functioning of the human brain requires the precise orchestration and execution of myriad molecular and cellular processes, across a multitude of cell types and over an extended period of time. Dysregulation of these processes affects structure and function of the brain and can lead to neurodevelopmental, neurological, or psychiatric disorders. Multiple environmental stimuli affect neural stem cells (NSCs) at several levels, thus impairing the normal human neurodevelopmental program. In this review article, we will delineate the main mechanisms of infection adopted by several neurotropic pathogens, and the selective NSC vulnerability. In particular, TORCH agents, i.e., Toxoplasma gondii, others (including Zika virus and Coxsackie virus), Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes simplex virus, will be considered for their devastating effects on NSC self-renewal with the consequent neural progenitor depletion, the cellular substrate of microcephaly. Moreover, new evidence suggests that some of these agents may also affect the NSC progeny, producing long-term effects in the neuronal lineage. This is evident in the paradigmatic example of the neurodegeneration occurring in Alzheimer’s disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: human neural stem cells; TORCH syndrome; microcephaly; neurodevelopment; neurodegeneration; Alzheimer’s disease human neural stem cells; TORCH syndrome; microcephaly; neurodevelopment; neurodegeneration; Alzheimer’s disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baggiani, M.; Dell’Anno, M.T.; Pistello, M.; Conti, L.; Onorati, M. Human Neural Stem Cell Systems to Explore Pathogen-Related Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders. Cells 2020, 9, 1893. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081893

AMA Style

Baggiani M, Dell’Anno MT, Pistello M, Conti L, Onorati M. Human Neural Stem Cell Systems to Explore Pathogen-Related Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders. Cells. 2020; 9(8):1893. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081893

Chicago/Turabian Style

Baggiani, Matteo, Maria T. Dell’Anno, Mauro Pistello, Luciano Conti, and Marco Onorati. 2020. "Human Neural Stem Cell Systems to Explore Pathogen-Related Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Disorders" Cells 9, no. 8: 1893. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081893

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