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Review

Glucose-Regulated Protein 94 (GRP94): A Novel Regulator of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Production

1
Department of Pathology and laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
2
Division of Cell Pathology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
4
Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
5
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(8), 1844; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081844
Received: 17 July 2020 / Revised: 31 July 2020 / Accepted: 4 August 2020 / Published: 6 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insulin-Like Growth Factors in Development, Cancers and Aging)
Mammals have two insulin-like growth factors (IGF) that are key mediators of somatic growth, tissue differentiation, and cellular responses to stress. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate the bioavailability of IGFs are important in both normal and aberrant development. IGF-I levels are primarily controlled via the growth hormone-IGF axis, in response to nutritional status, and also reflect metabolic diseases and cancer. One mechanism that controls IGF bioavailablity is the binding of circulating IGF to a number of binding proteins that keep IGF in a stable, but receptor non-binding state. However, even before IGF is released from the cells that produce it, it undergoes an obligatory association with a ubiquitous chaperone protein, GRP94. This binding is required for secretion of a properly folded, mature IGF. This chapter reviews the known aspects of the interaction and highlights the specificity issues yet to be determined. The IGF–GRP94 interaction provides a potential novel mechanism of idiopathic short stature, involving the obligatory chaperone and not just IGF gene expression. It also provides a novel target for cancer treatment, as GRP94 activity can be either inhibited or enhanced. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucose regulated protein (GRP) 94; insulin-like growth factor; obligate chaperone glucose regulated protein (GRP) 94; insulin-like growth factor; obligate chaperone
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MDPI and ACS Style

Argon, Y.; Bresson, S.E.; Marzec, M.T.; Grimberg, A. Glucose-Regulated Protein 94 (GRP94): A Novel Regulator of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Production. Cells 2020, 9, 1844. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081844

AMA Style

Argon Y, Bresson SE, Marzec MT, Grimberg A. Glucose-Regulated Protein 94 (GRP94): A Novel Regulator of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Production. Cells. 2020; 9(8):1844. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081844

Chicago/Turabian Style

Argon, Yair, Sophie E. Bresson, Michal T. Marzec, and Adda Grimberg. 2020. "Glucose-Regulated Protein 94 (GRP94): A Novel Regulator of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Production" Cells 9, no. 8: 1844. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9081844

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