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Open AccessReview

Update on Circulating Tumor Cells in Genitourinary Tumors with Focus on Prostate Cancer

1
Section of Pathological Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, United Hospitals, 60126 Ancona, Italy
2
Department of Medical Oncology, Division of Urogenital and Head and Neck Tumours, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy
3
Division of Oncology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40138 Bologna, Italy
4
Oncology Unit, Macerata Hospital, 62100 Macerata, Italy
5
Department of Surgery, Medical School, Cordoba University, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
6
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN 462020, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Cells 2020, 9(6), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061495
Received: 25 May 2020 / Revised: 12 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 19 June 2020
Current developments in the treatment of genitourinary tumors underline the unmet clinical need for biomarkers to improve decision-making in a challenging clinical setting. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has become one of the most exciting and important new approaches to identifying biomarkers at different stages of disease in a non-invasive way. Potential applications of CTCs include monitoring treatment efficacy and early detection of progression, selecting tailored therapies, as well as saving treatment costs. However, despite the promising implementation of CTCs in a clinical scenario, the isolation and characterization of these cells for molecular studies remain expensive with contemporary platforms, and significant technical challenges still need to be overcome. This updated, critical review focuses on the state of CTCs in patients with genitourinary tumor with focus on prostate cancer, discussing technical issues, main clinical results and hypothesizing potential future perspectives in clinical scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: liquid biopsy; circulating tumor cells; genitourinary cancers; precision oncology; immune checkpoint inhibitors liquid biopsy; circulating tumor cells; genitourinary cancers; precision oncology; immune checkpoint inhibitors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cimadamore, A.; Aurilio, G.; Nolé, F.; Massari, F.; Scarpelli, M.; Santoni, M.; Lopez-Beltran, A.; Cheng, L.; Montironi, R. Update on Circulating Tumor Cells in Genitourinary Tumors with Focus on Prostate Cancer. Cells 2020, 9, 1495.

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