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Article

Sex Chromosomes and Sex Phenotype Contribute to Biased DNA Methylation in Mouse Liver

1
Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 1C7, Canada
2
Canadian Centre for Computational Genomics, Montréal, QC H3A 0G1, Canada
3
Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
4
Department of Quantitative Life Sciences, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 0G4, Canada
5
The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada
6
Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montréal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada
7
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University, Montréal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Cells 2020, 9(6), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061436
Received: 5 May 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 4 June 2020 / Published: 9 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution of Epigenetic Mechanisms and Signatures)
Sex biases in the genome-wide distribution of DNA methylation and gene expression levels are some of the manifestations of sexual dimorphism in mammals. To advance our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to sex biases in DNA methylation and gene expression, we conducted whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) as well as RNA-seq on liver samples from mice with different combinations of sex phenotype and sex-chromosome complement. We compared groups of animals with different sex phenotypes, but the same genetic sexes, and vice versa, same sex phenotypes, but different sex-chromosome complements. We also compared sex-biased DNA methylation in mouse and human livers. Our data show that sex phenotype, X-chromosome dosage, and the presence of Y chromosome shape the differences in DNA methylation between males and females. We also demonstrate that sex bias in autosomal methylation is associated with sex bias in gene expression, whereas X-chromosome dosage-dependent methylation differences are not, as expected for a dosage-compensation mechanism. Furthermore, we find partial conservation between the repertoires of mouse and human genes that are associated with sex-biased methylation, an indication that gene function is likely to be an important factor in this phenomenon. View Full-Text
Keywords: sexual dimorphism; DNA methylation; gene expression; mouse liver; sex-chromosome complement; whole genome bisulfite sequencing sexual dimorphism; DNA methylation; gene expression; mouse liver; sex-chromosome complement; whole genome bisulfite sequencing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhuang, Q.K.-W.; Galvez, J.H.; Xiao, Q.; AlOgayil, N.; Hyacinthe, J.; Taketo, T.; Bourque, G.; Naumova, A.K. Sex Chromosomes and Sex Phenotype Contribute to Biased DNA Methylation in Mouse Liver. Cells 2020, 9, 1436. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061436

AMA Style

Zhuang QK-W, Galvez JH, Xiao Q, AlOgayil N, Hyacinthe J, Taketo T, Bourque G, Naumova AK. Sex Chromosomes and Sex Phenotype Contribute to Biased DNA Methylation in Mouse Liver. Cells. 2020; 9(6):1436. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061436

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhuang, Qinwei Kim-Wee, Jose Hector Galvez, Qian Xiao, Najla AlOgayil, Jeffrey Hyacinthe, Teruko Taketo, Guillaume Bourque, and Anna K. Naumova. 2020. "Sex Chromosomes and Sex Phenotype Contribute to Biased DNA Methylation in Mouse Liver" Cells 9, no. 6: 1436. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061436

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