Since their discovery, Rho GTPases have emerged as key regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics. In humans, there are 20 Rho GTPases and more than 150 regulators that belong to the RhoGEF, RhoGAP, and RhoGDI families. Throughout development, Rho GTPases choregraph a plethora of cellular processes essential for cellular migration, cell–cell junctions, and cell polarity assembly. Rho GTPases are also significant mediators of cancer cell invasion. Nevertheless, to date only a few molecules from these intricate signaling networks have been studied in depth, which has prevented appreciation for the full scope of Rho GTPases’ biological functions. Given the large complexity involved, system level studies are required to fully grasp the extent of their biological roles and regulation. Recently, several groups have tackled this challenge by using proteomic approaches to map the full repertoire of Rho GTPases and Rho regulators protein interactions. These studies have provided in-depth understanding of Rho regulators specificity and have contributed to expand Rho GTPases’ effector portfolio. Additionally, new roles for understudied family members were unraveled using high throughput screening strategies using cell culture models and mouse embryos. In this review, we highlight theses latest large-scale efforts, and we discuss the emerging opportunities that may lead to the next wave of discoveries.
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