Ewing sarcoma is a highly aggressive round cell mesenchymal neoplasm, most often occurring in children and young adults. At the molecular level, it is characterized by the presence of recurrent chromosomal translocations. In the last years, next-generation technologies have contributed to a more accurate diagnosis and a refined classification. Moreover, the application of these novel technologies has highlighted the relevance of intertumoral and intratumoral molecular heterogeneity and secondary genetic alterations. Furthermore, they have shown evidence that genomic features can change as the tumor disseminates and are influenced by treatment as well. Similarly, next-generation technologies applied to liquid biopsies will significantly impact patient management by allowing the early detection of relapse and monitoring response to treatment. Finally, the use of these novel technologies has provided data of great value in order to discover new druggable pathways. Thus, this review provides concise updates on the latest progress of these breakthrough technologies, underscoring their importance in the generation of key knowledge, prognosis, and potential treatment of Ewing Sarcoma.
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