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Open AccessArticle

Phenol-Soluble Modulin-Mediated Aggregation of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid

1
Department of Neurosurgery, Nowon Eulji Medical Center, Eulji University, Seoul 01830, Korea
2
Graduate School of Interdisciplinary Convergence for Functional Materials, College of Science and Technology, Duksung Women’s University, Seoul 01369, Korea
3
College of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
4
Department of Chemical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, Korea
5
Department of Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
6
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul 05355, Korea
7
Department of Biotechnology, College of Science and Technology, Duksung Women’s University, Seoul 01369, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cells 2020, 9(3), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9030788
Received: 18 February 2020 / Revised: 18 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Cellular Pathology)
Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are major determinants of Staphylococcus aureus virulence and their increased production in community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) likely contributes to the enhanced virulence of MRSA strains. Here, we analyzed the differences in bacterial cell aggregation according to PSM presence in the specific human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) environment. CSF samples from the intraventricular or lumbar intrathecal area of each patient and tryptic soy broth media were mixed at a 1:1 ratio, inoculated with WT and PSM-deleted mutants (Δpsm) of the CA-MRSA strain, USA300 LAC, and incubated overnight. Cell aggregation images were acquired after culture and image analysis was performed. The cell aggregation ratio in WT samples differed significantly between the two sampling sites (intraventricular: 0.2% vs. lumbar intrathecal: 6.7%, p < 0.001). The cell aggregation ratio in Δpsm samples also differed significantly between the two sampling sites (intraventricular: 0.0% vs. lumbar intrathecal: 1.2%, p < 0.001). Division of the study cases into two groups according to the aggregated area ratio (WT/Δpsm; group A: ratio of ≥ 2, group B: ratio of < 2) showed that the median aggregation ratio value differed significantly between groups A and B (5.5 and 0, respectively, p < 0.001). The differences in CSF distribution and PSM presence within the specific CSF environment are significant factors affecting bacterial cell aggregation. View Full-Text
Keywords: community-associated methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus; phenol-soluble modulins; cerebrospinal fluid; bacterial aggregation community-associated methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus; phenol-soluble modulins; cerebrospinal fluid; bacterial aggregation
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Kim, D.-R.; Lee, Y.; Kim, H.-K.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-G.; Yang, Y.-H.; Kim, J.-S.; Joo, H.-S. Phenol-Soluble Modulin-Mediated Aggregation of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid. Cells 2020, 9, 788.

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