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A Role for Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

1
Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan
2
Department of Neurosurgery, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien 970, Taiwan
3
Neuro-Medical Scientific Center, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien 970, Taiwan
4
PhD Program in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan
5
Department of Medical Research, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien 970, Taiwan
6
CardioVascular Research Center, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien 970, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Cells 2020, 9(3), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9030750
Received: 14 February 2020 / Revised: 15 March 2020 / Accepted: 17 March 2020 / Published: 19 March 2020
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an intracellular organelle that performs multiple functions, such as lipid biosynthesis, protein folding, and maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis. Thus, conditions wherein the ER is unable to fold proteins is defined as ER stress, and an inbuilt quality control mechanism, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated during ER stress, which serves as a recovery system that inhibits protein synthesis. Further, based on the severity of ER stress, the response could involve both proapoptotic and antiapoptotic phases. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the second most common subtype of cerebral stroke and many lines of evidence have suggested a role for the ER in major neurological disorders. The injury mechanism during ICH includes hematoma formation, which in turn leads to inflammation, elevated intracranial pressure, and edema. A proper understanding of the injury mechanism(s) is required to effectively treat ICH and closing the gap between our current understanding of ER stress mechanisms and ICH injury can lead to valuable advances in the clinical management of ICH. View Full-Text
Keywords: intracerebral hemorrhage; ER stress; unfolded protein response; neuroinflammation; necroptosis; ferroptosis; pyroptosis intracerebral hemorrhage; ER stress; unfolded protein response; neuroinflammation; necroptosis; ferroptosis; pyroptosis
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Mohammed Thangameeran, S.I.; Tsai, S.-T.; Hung, H.-Y.; Hu, W.-F.; Pang, C.-Y.; Chen, S.-Y.; Liew, H.-K. A Role for Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Cells 2020, 9, 750.

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