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A PP2A-B56—Centered View on Metaphase-to-Anaphase Transition in Mouse Oocyte Meiosis I

Oocyte Maturation in Starfish

Department of Biological Sciences, Ochanomizu University, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan
Cells 2020, 9(2), 476;
Received: 25 January 2020 / Revised: 15 February 2020 / Accepted: 17 February 2020 / Published: 19 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing a Female Gamete: An Oocyte Story)
Oocyte maturation is a process that occurs in the ovaries, where an immature oocyte resumes meiosis to attain competence for normal fertilization after ovulation/spawning. In starfish, the hormone 1-methyladenine binds to an unidentified receptor on the plasma membrane of oocytes, inducing a conformational change in the heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein α-subunit (Gα), so that the α-subunit binds GTP in exchange of GDP on the plasma membrane. The GTP-binding protein βγ-subunit (Gβγ) is released from Gα, and the released Gβγ activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), followed by the target of rapamycin kinase complex2 (TORC2) and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-dependent phosphorylation of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK) of ovarian oocytes. Thereafter, SGK activates Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) to increase the intracellular pH (pHi) from ~6.7 to ~6.9. Moreover, SGK phosphorylates Cdc25 and Myt1, thereby inducing the de-phosphorylation and activation of cyclin B–Cdk1, causing germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Both pHi increase and GVBD are required for spindle assembly at metaphase I, followed by MI arrest at pHi 6.9 until spawning. Due to MI arrest or SGK-dependent pHi control, spawned oocytes can be fertilized normally View Full-Text
Keywords: starfish; oocyte maturation; SGK; intracellular pH; fertilization starfish; oocyte maturation; SGK; intracellular pH; fertilization
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Chiba, K. Oocyte Maturation in Starfish. Cells 2020, 9, 476.

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Chiba K. Oocyte Maturation in Starfish. Cells. 2020; 9(2):476.

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Chiba, Kazuyoshi. 2020. "Oocyte Maturation in Starfish" Cells 9, no. 2: 476.

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