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Article

Characterizing the Retinal Phenotype in the High-Fat Diet and Western Diet Mouse Models of Prediabetes

1
Vision Science Graduate Program, School of Optometry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
2
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, School of Medicine, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
3
Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
4
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, USA
5
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(2), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020464
Received: 9 January 2020 / Revised: 7 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 February 2020 / Published: 18 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecular and Cellular Basis of Retinal Diseases)
We sought to delineate the retinal features associated with the high-fat diet (HFD) mouse, a widely used model of obesity. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a high-fat (60% fat; HFD) or low-fat (10% fat; LFD) diet for up to 12 months. The effect of HFD on body weight and insulin resistance were measured. The retina was assessed by electroretinogram (ERG), fundus photography, permeability studies, and trypsin digests for enumeration of acellular capillaries. The HFD cohort experienced hypercholesterolemia when compared to the LFD cohort, but not hyperglycemia. HFD mice developed a higher body weight (60.33 g vs. 30.17g, p < 0.0001) as well as a reduced insulin sensitivity index (9.418 vs. 62.01, p = 0.0002) compared to LFD controls. At 6 months, retinal functional testing demonstrated a reduction in a-wave and b-wave amplitudes. At 12 months, mice on HFD showed evidence of increased retinal nerve infarcts and vascular leakage, reduced vascular density, but no increase in number of acellular capillaries compared to LFD mice. In conclusion, the HFD mouse is a useful model for examining the effect of prediabetes and hypercholesterolemia on the retina. The HFD-induced changes appear to occur slower than those observed in type 2 diabetes (T2D) models but are consistent with other retinopathy models, showing neural damage prior to vascular changes. View Full-Text
Keywords: retinal phenotype; neural infarcts; vascular leakage retinal phenotype; neural infarcts; vascular leakage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Asare-Bediako, B.; Noothi, S.K.; Li Calzi, S.; Athmanathan, B.; Vieira, C.P.; Adu-Agyeiwaah, Y.; Dupont, M.; Jones, B.A.; Wang, X.X.; Chakraborty, D.; Levi, M.; Nagareddy, P.R.; Grant, M.B. Characterizing the Retinal Phenotype in the High-Fat Diet and Western Diet Mouse Models of Prediabetes. Cells 2020, 9, 464. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020464

AMA Style

Asare-Bediako B, Noothi SK, Li Calzi S, Athmanathan B, Vieira CP, Adu-Agyeiwaah Y, Dupont M, Jones BA, Wang XX, Chakraborty D, Levi M, Nagareddy PR, Grant MB. Characterizing the Retinal Phenotype in the High-Fat Diet and Western Diet Mouse Models of Prediabetes. Cells. 2020; 9(2):464. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020464

Chicago/Turabian Style

Asare-Bediako, Bright, Sunil K. Noothi, Sergio Li Calzi, Baskaran Athmanathan, Cristiano P. Vieira, Yvonne Adu-Agyeiwaah, Mariana Dupont, Bryce A. Jones, Xiaoxin X. Wang, Dibyendu Chakraborty, Moshe Levi, Prabhakara R. Nagareddy, and Maria B. Grant 2020. "Characterizing the Retinal Phenotype in the High-Fat Diet and Western Diet Mouse Models of Prediabetes" Cells 9, no. 2: 464. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020464

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